Cancers share some common characteristics:
• Growth that is not subject to normal restrictions for that tissue and fails to respond to apoptotic signals (see later) or in which a high proportion of cells are dividing, i.e. there is a high 'growth fraction'
• Local invasiveness
• Tendency to spread to other parts of the body (metastasise)
• Less differentiated cell morphology
• Tendency to retain some characteristics of the tissue of origin.
Cancer treatment employs six established principal modalities:
4. endocrine therapy
6. biological therapy.
Details of the exploitation of all of these techniques, whether alone, sequentially or concurrently is beyond the scope of a book on clinical phar
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