Cancer treatments and outcomes

Cancers share some common characteristics:

• Growth that is not subject to normal restrictions for that tissue and fails to respond to apoptotic signals (see later) or in which a high proportion of cells are dividing, i.e. there is a high 'growth fraction'

• Local invasiveness

• Tendency to spread to other parts of the body (metastasise)

• Less differentiated cell morphology

• Tendency to retain some characteristics of the tissue of origin.

Cancer treatment employs six established principal modalities:

1. surgery

2. radiotherapy

3. chemotherapy

4. endocrine therapy

5. immunotherapy

6. biological therapy.

Details of the exploitation of all of these techniques, whether alone, sequentially or concurrently is beyond the scope of a book on clinical phar

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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