Direct-acting (receptor agonists)

• Choline esters (carbachoi, bethanechol) which act at all sites like acetylcholine. They are resistant to degradation by cholinesterases. Muscarinic effects are much more prominent than nicotinic (see p. 435).

• Alkaloids (pilocarpine, muscarine) which act selectively on end-organs of postganglionic, cholinergic neurons.


• Cholinesterase inhibitors, or anticholinesterases (physostigmine, neostigmine, pyridostigmine, distigmine, rivastigmine, donepezil), which inhibit the enzyme that destroys acetylcholine, allowing the endogenous transmitter to persist and produce intensified effects.

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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