Direct-acting (receptor agonists)

• Choline esters (carbachoi, bethanechol) which act at all sites like acetylcholine. They are resistant to degradation by cholinesterases. Muscarinic effects are much more prominent than nicotinic (see p. 435).

• Alkaloids (pilocarpine, muscarine) which act selectively on end-organs of postganglionic, cholinergic neurons.


• Cholinesterase inhibitors, or anticholinesterases (physostigmine, neostigmine, pyridostigmine, distigmine, rivastigmine, donepezil), which inhibit the enzyme that destroys acetylcholine, allowing the endogenous transmitter to persist and produce intensified effects.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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