Guide To Further Reading

Biomarkers Definitions Working Group 2001 Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: preferred definitions and conceptual framework. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 69: 89-95 Bland J M, Altman D G 2000 Statistical notes. The odds ratio. British Medical Journal 320:1468 Chalmers 11995 What do I want from health research and researchers when I am a patient? British Medical Journal 310:1315-1318 Chatellier G et al 1996 The numbers needed to treat: a clinically useful nomogram in its proper context. British Medical Journal 312: 426-429 Doll R 1998 Controlled trials: the 1948 watershed. British Medical Journal 317:1217 (and following articles).

Egger M et al 1997 Meta-analysis. Principles and practice. British Medical Journal 315:1533-1537 (See also other articles in the series entitled 'Metaanalysis'.)

Emanuel E J, Miller F G 2001 The ethics of placebo-controlled trials — a middle ground. New England Journal of Medicine 345:915-919 Greenhalgh T 1997 Papers that report drug trials. British Medical Journal 315: 480-483 (See also other articles in the series entitled 'How to read a paper'.)

Hrobjartsson A, Gotzsche P C 2001 Is the placebo powerless? An analysis of clinical trials comparing placebo with no treatment. New England Journal of Medicine 344:1594-1602 Kaptchuk T J 1998 Powerful placebo: the dark side of the randomised controlled trial. Lancet 351: 1722-1725

Levy G 1992 Publication bias: Its implications for clinical pharmacology. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 52:115-119 Lewis J et al 2002 Placebo-control led trials and the Declaration of Helsinki. Lancet 359:1337-1340 Pogue J, Yusuf S 1998 Overcoming the limitations of current meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Lancet 351:47-52 Silverman W A, Altman D G 1996 Patients'

preferences and randomized trials. Lancet 347: 171-174

Sibbald B, Roland M 1998 Why are randomised controlled trials important? British Medical Journal 316: 201 (See also subsequent articles in this series entitled 'Understanding controlled trials'.) Urquhart J 2001 Demonstrating effectiveness in a postplacebo era. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 70:115-120 Waller P C, Jackson P R, Tucker G T, Ramsay L E 1994 Clinical pharmacology with confidence [intervals]. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 37: 309

39 'Quick, let us prescribe this new drug while it remains effective'. Richard Asher.

40 By courtesy of Dr Robert H Williams and the Editor of The Journal of the American Medical Association.

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