Guideto Further Reading

Banks R E et al 2000 Proteomics: new perspectives, new biomedical opportunities. Lancet 356:1749-1756 Beeley N, Berger A 2000 A revolution in drug discovery: combinatorial chemistry still needs logic to drive science forward. British Medical Journal 321: 581-582 Black J W 1986 Pharmacology: analysis and exploration. British Medical Journal 293: 252 Crystal R G 1995 The gene as a drug. Nature Medicine 1:15

Di Masi J A1995 Success rates for new drugs entering clinical testing in the United States. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 58:1

14 The cost of treating a patient having the rare genetic Gaucher's liposome storage disease with genetically engineered enzyme is US$ 145 000 to 400 000 per annum according to severity. Who can and will pay? More such situations will occur.

15 Official recognition of orphan drug status is accorded in the USA (pop 240 million) where the relevant disease affects fewer than 200,000 people; in Japan (pop 121 million) for fewer than 50,000 people.

Dollery C T 1999 Drug discovery and development in the molecular era. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 47: 5-6 Fears R, Robert D, Poste G 2000 Rational or rationed medicine? The promise of genetics for improved clinical practice. British Medical Journal 320: 933 Gale E A M 2001 Lessons from the glitazones: a story of drug development. Lancet 357:1870-1875 Graeme-Smith D G 1999 How will knowledge of the human genome affect drug therapy? British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 47: 7-10 Lachmann P1992 The use of animals in research.

British Medical Journal 305:1 Lasagna L1982 Will all new drugs become orphans? Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 31: 285

Meyer B R 1992 Biotechnology and therapeutics: Experimental treatments and limited resources. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 51: 359 Roses A D 2000 Pharmacogenetics and future drug development and delivery. The Lancet 355: 1358-1361

Smith A E 1999 Gene therapy — where are we? Lancet

354 (suppl 1): stl-4 Sykes R 1998 Being a modern pharmaceutical company. British Medical Journal 317:1172 Wolf R C, Smith G, Smith R L 2000 Pharmacogenetics. British Medical Journal 320: 987-990

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