drug response is a matter of clinical importance as well as economics and logistics.

A multitude of factors related both to individuals and their environment contribute to differences in drug response. In general, their precise role is less well documented than is the case with genetic factors but their range and complexity are illustrated by the following list of likely candidates: age, sex, pregnancy, lactation, exercise, sunlight, disease, infection, occupational exposures, drugs, circadian and seasonal variations, diet, stress, fever, malnutrition, alcohol intake, tobacco or cannabis smoking and the functioning of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hepatic, immunological and renal systems.31 Some of the more relevant influences are discussed here.

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