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Diarrhoea results from an imbalance between secretion and reabsorption of fluid and electrolytes; it has numerous causes, including infections with enteric organisms (which may stimulate secretion or damage absorption), inflammatory bowel disease and nutrient malabsorption due to disease. It also commonly occurs as a manifestation of disordered gut motility in the absence of demonstrable disease (see below). Rarely it is due to secretory tumours of the alimentary tract, e.g. carcinoid tumour or vipoma (a tumour which secretes VIP, vasoactive intestinal peptide).

Motility patterns in the bowel. An important factor in diarrhoea may be loss of the normal segmenting contractions that delay passage of contents, so that an occasional peristaltic wave has a greater propulsive effect. Segmental contractions of the smooth muscle in the bowel mix the intestinal contents. Patients with diarrhoea commonly have less spontaneous segmenting activity in the sigmoid colon than do people with normal bowel habit, and patients with constipation have more. Antimotility drugs (see below) reduce diarrhoea by increasing segmentation and inhibiting peristalsis.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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