Sulphonamides. Usually their names contain 'sulpha' or 'sulfa'. These drugs, and trimethoprim, with which they may be combined, inhibit synthesis of nucleic acid precursors.
Quinolones are structurally related to nalidixic acid; the names of the most recently introduced members of the group end in '-oxacin', e.g. ciprofloxacin. They act by preventing DNA replication.
Azoles all contain an azole ring and the names end in '-azole', e.g. metronidazole. They act by the production of short-lived intermediate compounds which are toxic to DNA of sensitive organisms. Rifampicin inhibits bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase.
Antimicrobials that are restricted to certain specific uses, i.e. tuberculosis, urinary tract infections, are described with the treatment of these conditions in Chapter 13.
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