Loop diuretics (especially as i.v. boluses) potentiate ototoxicity of aminoglycosides and nephrotoxicity of some cephalosporins. NSAIDs tend to cause sodium retention which counteracts the effect of diuretics; the mechanism may involve inhibition of renal prostaglandin formation. Diuretic treatment of a patient taking lithium can precipitate toxicity from this drug (the increased sodium loss is accompanied by reduced lithium excretion). Reference is made above to drug treatments which, when combined with diuretics, may lead to hyperkalemia, hypokalaemia, hyponatraemia, or glucose intolerance.

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