Natural History Of Chronic Cardiac Failure

The severity of cardiac failure can be classified at

Potential reversible causes:

• Hypovolemia

• Hyper/hypokalaemia & metabolic disorders

• Hypothermia •Tension pneumothorax •Tamponade

• Toxic/therapeutic disorders •Thromboembolic & mechanical obstruction

Fig. 24.3 Advanced cardiac life support. (BLS: basic life support) With permission, UK Resuscitation Council.The latest version can be found on

The earliest endocrine abnormality in almost all types of cardiac disease is increased release of the heart's own hormones, the natriuretic peptides ANP and BNP (A for atrial, B for brain, where it was first discovered), and their concentration in plasma may become a guide to therapy.10 These peptides normally suppress renin and aldosterone production,

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