Risks Of Contraception In Relation To Benefit

The death rate from taking oral contraceptives is less than that from playing cricket or football (in Britain) and much less than those from swimming (750 men, 250 women per annum in Britain). A car driver may expect, on average, to be admitted to hospital once in 20 years due to a road accident. A woman would have to use oral contraceptives for 2000 years for a similar chance due to a thrombotic episode.

Any danger oral contraceptives may have for the individual must also be seen in relation to their benefits, not only to the individual, but to the community, e.g. fewer self-induced and criminal abortions, fewer unwanted children, slowing down

• Many of die pituitary hormones and their hypothalamic releasing factors are used in diagnosis or therapy.

• Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) is used both for its vasoconstrictor effect (in the treatment of oesophageal varices) and for its antidiuretic action.

• The main therapeutic use of pituitary hormones is of growth hormone (anterior pituitary) and those from the posterior pituitary: oxytocin and vasopressin.

• The main hypothalamus-pituitary target organ axis for therapeutic intervention is that controlling reproductive hormones, especially in women.

• Suppression of oestrogen and/or androgen production is used in the treatment of tumours stimulated by these: breast and prostate.

• Therapy in women is used to suppress ovulation (contraceptives), to stimulate ovulation (fertility treatment) or to mimic ovarian endocrine function (postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, HRT).

of the speed of increase of world population with less hunger and misery.

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