The liver is the most important organ in which drugs are structurally altered. Some of the resulting metabolites may be biologically inactive, some active and some toxic (see Chapter 7).The liver is exposed to drugs in higher concentrations than are most organs because most are administered orally and are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.Thus the whole dose must pass through the liver to reach the systemic circulation. Because of this the liver is a vulnerable target for injury from chemicals and drugs, and disordered hepatic function is an important cause of abnormal drug handling and response. Drugs and the liver
• Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic changes
• Prescribing in liver disease
• Drug-induced liver injury
• Aspects of therapy
Bile salts and gallstones Pancreas and drugs
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Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.