P-lactams, the structure of which contains a p-

lactam ring. The major subdivisions are:

(a) penicillins whose official names usually include or end in 'cillin'

(b) cephalosporins and cephamycins which are recognised by the inclusion of 'cef' or 'ceph' in their official names. In the UK recently all these names have been standardised to begin with 'cef'.

Tetracyclines as the name suggests are four-ringed structures and their names end in '-cycline'.

Macrolides: e.g. erythromycin. Clindamycin, structurally a lincosamide, has a similar action and overlapping antibacterial activity.

Other drugs that act by inhibiting protein synthesis include quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, chloramphenicol and sodium fusidate.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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