Aerobics For Fitness

Body Groove Workout

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Body Groove Workout Overview

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Contents: Workout DVD
Creator: Misty Tripoli
Official Website: www.bodygroove.com
Price: $37.00

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Chief Complaint And History Of Present Illness

The patient is an active 35-year-old woman who had no previous history of knee problems until the insidious onset of medial-sided right knee pain, swelling, and weight-bearing discomfort that began 6 months before presentation. She denied any trauma and was actively participating in snow skiing, running, and aerobics before the onset of these symptoms. She does not ever recall knee symptoms as a child or adolescent. She was referred for treatment of an unstable lesion of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD).

Exercise Training in Chronic Heart Failure

An aerobic training program in CHF patients regularly reduces the resting heart rate, which indicates a reduction in sympathoadrenergic drive. This has also been confirmed for serum catecholamine levels Coats et al. showed a 16 reduction in radiolabeled norepinephrine secretion after 8 weeks of training. This reduction in adren-ergic tone was accompanied by increase in heart rate variability.43 In addition to the reduction in circulating catecholamines Braith et al. described a 25-30 reduction in angiotensin II, aldosterone, arginine vasopeptide, and atrial natriuretic pep-tide following 4 months of walking training in CHF patients.44 In a recently published randomized clinical trial47 it was confirmed that exercise has no negative impact on cardiac function. On the contrary, after 6 months of a regular aerobic training program, a small but significant improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction was observed accompanied by a reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter.47

Newer Randomized Studies

These findings of decreased morbidity as a consequence of exercise training in patients with CAD were corroborated by a more recent randomized study. Hambrecht and coworkers randomized 101 patients with stable CAD and documented exercise-induced ischemia to undergo either a 12-month exercise training program or a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) followed by usual care.30 All patients had an angio-graphically documented stenosis suitable for PCI. Within the exercise training program patients exercised during the first 2 weeks in the hospital six times per day for 10 minutes on a bicycle ergometer at 70 of the symptom-limited maximal heart rate. Before discharge from the hospital the target heart rate for home training was determined by a maximal symptom-limited ergospirometry. The target heart rate was defined as 70 of the maximal heart rate during this symptom-limited exercise test. Patients were asked to exercise on their bicycle ergometer close to the target heart rate for...

Exercise Level Aerobic Versus Anaerobic

CHF patients whose initial functional exercise capacity is very low. Moreover, intermittent exercise at workloads > 70 of peak VO2 exposes the heart to periodically elevated LV filling pressures. Based on small exercise trials, some authors hypothesized that the elevated LV filling pressures induce further LV dilation.5 However, large trials in ischemic patients with LV dysfunction did not reveal any deleterious effect of exercise on LV volume, function, or wall thickness.6,7,16 Nevertheless, aerobic exercise training at low workloads (< 50 of peak aerobic capacity) appears to be a promising approach to physical training in patients with severely compromised LV function because exercising at low workloads does increase peak aerobic capacity and vascular flow capacity of the lower limb while exposing the left ventricle to lower wall stress than that associated with conventional workloads.17-19

Initiation of Training Therapy and Progression of Training Intensity

In most training intervention trials, a minimal symptom-free exercise tolerance of 25 W is required for the initiation of the training program. In patients with very low exercise tolerance (< 50 W),training is started with several short training sessions of 5 (-10) minutes per day at 50 of peak oxygen uptake. At higher baseline exercise capacities the initial training session duration can be 10-15 minutes. An adequate warm-up and cool-down period consisting of stretching or aerobic exercise at a very low intensity is also recommended.

Future Perspectives of Training Interventions in Heart Failure

Resistance training is being increasingly employed in CHF patients in clinical practice. However, the database for such modifications of established aerobic training programs is not sound. While meta-analysis clearly indicates a prognostic benefit of endurance training for CHF, similar data are lacking for resistance exercise. Large-scale randomized studies comparing aerobic, resistance, and combined training programs in CHF are still pending.

Exercise Program and Safety

Besides aerobic training, all other aspects of physical training, like range of motion, flexibility, and muscular strength, should be promoted with the exception of speed in training. Muscular strength or resistance training should be performed two to three times a week, after the aerobic training period, exercising the most important muscle groups of the upper and lower body for 20-30 min using elastic bands, small weight or weights machines, through one to three sets of 8-15 repetitions at 50 of the maximum tolerable load.

The Cardiovascular Health Study and the First Clinical Classification of Older Individuals

Present if a person has not performed any of the following activities during the past 2 weeks walking, mowing the lawn, raking, gardening, hiking, jogging, biking, exercise cycling, dancing, aerobics, bowling, golf, single and double tennis, racquetball, callisthenics, swimming

Exercise Training

An ambulatory, supervised exercise training program should contain three training sessions a week for at least 12 weeks. The sessions should have a duration of 90 minutes and consist of a warming up, the main exercise part, and a cooling down. The warming up is a period of calm physical activity of 5-10 minutes, inducing the patient into cardiovascular adjustments and limiting the risk of arrhythmias or other cardiovascular complications. It can include low-intensity aerobic exercise and flexibility exercises. The cooling down is a mild exercise or relative rest of 5-10 minutes, protecting the patient from possible complications in the early recovery period and to help the cardiovascular system to return slowly to a resting condition. The main part of the training session can contain aerobic exercises like walking, jogging, cycling, arm ergometry, rowing, predominantly isotonic callisthenics. The exercise intensity is individually determined for every patient, based on the...

Effects of Exercise Training in Heart Transplant Recipients

Exercise intensity is best measured by rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Using the original Borg scale, RPE should be 12 to 14, which corresponds to the ventilatory threshold and a heart rate of usually between 60 and 80 of maximum. For testing protocols small increments of 10 W per minute are recommended to allow for the slow adaptation of heart rate in HTRs. Aerobic exercise may be started in the second or third week after transplant but should be discontinued during corticosteroid bolus therapy for rejection. Resistance exercise should be added after 6 to 8 weeks. A practical approach to Aerobic exercise has been used by Kavanagh et al.,21 who instructed patients with a mean age of 47 to start walking 1.6 km five times weekly at a pace that resulted in a perceived exertion of 13 to 14 on the Borg scale.

Growth Hormone and IGF1

Strength and functional status (30 m walk time and stair-climbing ability). There were no improvements in isokinetic strength but improvements in the 30-m walk and stair-climbing ability as a result of the experimental treatments were observed. Blackman et al. 64 examined the effects of 26 weeks of testosterone, GH, or a combination of the two on strength and VO2max (a measure of maximal aerobic exercise capacity). While there was a significant increase in muscle strength and VO2 max as a result of testosterone and GH administration, many side effects were reported. Svensson et al. 65 reported that 5 years of GH administration led to a persistent increase in isometric, concentric isokinetic knee flexor strength, and grip strength. They did not report any side effects.

Nutritional Support and Anabolic Steroids

Schols et al. 91 studied 217 patients with COPD over 8 weeks in three groups nutritional supplementation (420 kcal), nutritional supplementation and anabolic steroids (25 mg ND for women and 50 mg for men biweekly), and placebo. Low-intensity aerobic exercise was performed by all groups. There was a significant increase in arm-muscle circumference in the combined anabolic steroids and nutritional support. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure increased in both treatment groups in the first 4 weeks but after 8 weeks only the combined treatment group was different from placebo. Thus, it appears that it is efficacious to combine anabolic steroids and nutritional supplementation for the treatment of cachexia related to COPD.

Treatment recommendations

The patient should avoid exercises or activities that involve repeated or resisted trunk flexion (such as traditional sit-ups), high impact aerobics (such as running or jumping rope), and activities in which the risk of falls is increased (such as exercising on slippery floors or trampolines or step aerobics).

Powerduration relationship

CP is, therefore, the upper limit of sustainable aerobic exercise e.g. 159, 160 and thus is a crucial determinant of the endurability of a particular task. W' has the interesting property of having the units of work. This suggests that a subject only has access to a certain depletable pool of energy above CP e.g. 159, 160 . This energy pool may either be utilised rapidly at high WRs or more slowly at lower WRs, until it has been completely depleted. Alternatively, this may reflect the attainment of a critical level of fatigue metabolite build-up (or even of sensation), at a rate related to the increment of WR above CP 161, 162 .

Resistance Training

Resistance exercise should complement, rather than replace, an aerobic conditioning program. Gains in muscular strength and endurance as well as benefits related to bone health and metabolism can occur by either static (isometric) or dynamic (isotonic or isokinetic) exercises. Dynamic exercises are generally recommended for healthy adults and patients in rehabilitation programs, both because they mimic activities of daily living and because they are associated with lower degrees of hemodynamic stress. Resistance training should be performed at a moderate-to-slow speed, should be rhythmical, and with a normal breathing pattern throughout the movement. Patients with cardiovascular disease should in particular avoid heavy resistance or isometric exercises, which can cause a dramatic increase in both systolic and diastolic pressures, particularly during the Valsalva maneuver. Guidelines suggest that one set of 8 to 12 repetitions of 8 to 10 exercises that condition the major muscle...

Objectives

This is a 56-year-old man with severe hypertension, who has evidence, on physical examination, of hypertensive end-organ damage, that is, hypertensive retinopathy and left ventricular hypertrophy. In addition, he has multiple risk factors for atherosclerotic disease, and he may already have developed carotid and peripheral arterial disease. The most likely diagnosis is essential hypertension, but secondary causes still must be considered. A thorough evaluation for other modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease is fundamental. Lifestyle modification, including smoking cessation, diet, weight loss, and aerobic exercise, cannot be overemphasized, in conjunction with pharmacologic therapy. If we specifically look at this patient, although you have measured his BP only once in your office, he has been told before that he is hypertensive, and he already appears to have end-organ damage of hypertension. His blood pressure is above 160 100 mmHg, which places him in stage II...

Main Messages

As shown by the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) and others it is of utmost importance to keep HbAlc levels < 6.0 and LDL cholesterol levels < 2.5mmol L (100mg dl) in order to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events. Since the incidence of diabetes mellitus correlates inversely with the degree of physical activity, regular physical exercise (e.g. 30 min day of aerobic exercise at a moderate intensity) can cut the risk for impaired glucose tolerance by half and the diabetes risk by up to three-quarters. Endurance training is recommended for everybody including patients with stable coronary artery disease. Energy consumption should ideally be between 1000 and 2000kcal week, which corresponds to 3-5 hours of submaximal endurance training per week. This has been shown to lead to increased exercise performance it also improves the cardiovascular risk profile, reduces the cardiovascular complication rate, improves myocardial perfusion, and slows the progression of...

Elderly Patients

In addition to having heart failure, elderly people often suffer from disability caused by mental depression, low aerobic fitness levels, low skeletal muscle mass, and presence of orthopedic co-morbidities. Despite these factors, the elderly benefit equally from cardiac rehabilitation, but from a lower baseline. When initiating aerobic exercise the exercise intensity should be carefully weighted against a higher risk of injuries with higher workloads. Even workloads as low as 60-65 of the maximal heart rate have documented effects on exercise capacity. To avoid orthopedic injuries ergometer training is preferably to walking or jogging.

Program Safety

Exercise safety should be considered in cardiac and musculoskeletal terms. The appropriate session format should be respected, always respecting warm-up and cool-down periods of 5-10 min duration, keeping the duration of aerobic training under 45 minutes and offering resistance training two to three times weekly, both of moderate intensity. The probability of occurrence of ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia (VF VT) should also be very low if there is significant risk, training should be conducted under ECG monitoring and in the presence of personnel trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In these cases high-intensity exercise is not advisable.

Physiology

Other diseases that are important to consider in the perimenopausal woman include hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and breast cancer. Women in this stage of life may also experience depression, whether spontaneous in onset or situational due to grief or midlife adjustments. The practitioner should advocate aerobic exercise at least three times per week, with weight-bearing exercise advantageous for preventing osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD) testing, such as dual-energy x-ray absoiptiomelry (DEXA), is useful in the early identification of osteoporosis and osteopenia.

Cystic fibrosis

Evaluation and thus for referral for lung transplantation are FEVi, arterial blood gas tensions, age and sex 29-31 . Nonetheless, since CF patients with similar functional results at rest show different clinical outcomes, other factors, such as recurrent respiratory tract infections (by Pseudomonas sp. and Burkholderia cepacia) and poor nutritional status, have been introduced into this evaluation 32-35 . In addition, exercise tolerance is a marker of severity and progression of the disease, and its inclusion can add further prognostic information. Nixon et al. 32 reported the results of a prospective study on 109 patients followed for 8 yrs, showing that a normal level of exercise tolerance, as demonstrated by a Vo2,peak > 82 pred, was associated with a survival rate of 83 , whereas mortality increased as aerobic fitness deteriorated, i.e. survival was 49 for a Vo2,peak 59-81 pred and 72 for a Vo2,peak < 58 pred. After adjustment for other risk factors, CF patients with higher...

Modern Well Being

The universe, derived from both eastern Asian and Western classical-vitalist cosmologies. It pays close attention to the action of primary elements (earth, air, fire, water, metal, and wood), and to the old existential or environmental categories such as air, food and drink, exercise, sleep and work, the evacuations, and passions of the mind. The body is seen as existing in a biological envelope through which the cosmic physical forces of 'bio-energy' (or ying and yang) flow with a transcendent psychic energy that can be either harmful or benign. There is a particular interest in the tonic therapeutic actions and reactions of the five senses (acting not only through the nose, but through the eyes, the hands, the ears, and the voice) and in psychosomatic medicine generally the term favoured by progressive holistic GPs is 'biopsychosocial medicine'.46 The techniques used to control bio-energy are mainly those preserved and developed in the ancient practical-medicine traditions of...

Aerobics

Aerobics

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