Exterminator Proteins Biological Pest Control at the

Amide Linked Myristoyl Anchors

Control of biological pests, including mosquitoes, houseflies, gnats, and tree-consuming predators like the eastern tent caterpillar, is frequently achieved through the use of microbial membrane proteins. For example, several varieties of Bacillus thu-rigiensis produce proteins that bind to cell membranes in the digestive systems of insects that consume them, creating transmembrane ion channels. Leakage of Na , K , and H ions through these membranes in the insect gut destroys crucial ion...

Carbohydrate Utilization in Exercise

Carbohydrate Utilization

Animals have a remarkable ability to shift gears metabolically during periods of strenuous exercise or activity. Metabolic adaptations allow the body to draw on different sources of energy (all of which produce ATP) for different types of activity. During periods of short-term, high-intensity exercise (e.g., a 100-m dash), most of the required energy is supplied directly by existing stores of ATP and creatine phosphate (Figure, part a). Long-term, low-intensity exercise (a 10-km run or a...