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Aspinall, G. O., 1982. The Polysaccharides, Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Academic Press.

Bennett, V., 1985. The membrane skeleton of human erythrocytes and its implications for more complex cells. Annual Review of Biochemistry 54:273-304.

Bretscher, M., 1985. The molecules of the cell membrane. Scientific American 253:100-108.

Collins, P. M., 1987. Carbohydrates. London: Chapman and Hall.

Davison, E. A., 1967. Carbohydrate Chemistry. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Dawidowicz, E. A., 1987. Dynamics of membrane lipid metabolism and turnover. Annual Review of Biochemistry 56:43-61.

Doering, T. L., Masterson, W. J., Hart, G. W., and Englund, P. T., 1990. Biosynthesis of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol membrane anchors. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265:611-614.

Fasman, G. D., and Gilbert, W. A., 1990. The prediction of transmembrane protein sequences and their conformation: An evaluation. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 15:89-92.

Feeney, R. E., Burcham, T. S., and Yfeh, Y., 1986. Antifreeze glycoproteins from polar fish blood. Annual Review of Biophysical Chemistry 15:59-78.

Frye, C. D., and Edidin, M., 1970. The rapid intermixing of cell surface antigens after formation of mouse-human heterokaryons. Journal of Cell Science 7:319-335.

Gelb, M. H., 1997. Protein prenylation, et cetera: Signal transduction in two dimensions. Science 275:1750-1751.

Glomset, J. A., Gelb, M. H., and Farnsworth, C. C., 1990. Prenyl proteins in eukaryotic cells: A new type of membrane anchor. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 15:139-142.

Gordon, J. I., Duronio, R. J., Rudnick, D. A., Adams, S. P., and Gokel, G. W., 1991. Protein Amyristoylation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 266: 8647-8650.

Jain, M. K., 1988. Introduction to Biological Membranes, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Jennings, M. L., 1989. Topography of membrane proteins. Annual Review of Biochemistry 58:999-1027.

Jentoft, N., 1990. Why are proteins O-glycosylated? Trends in Biochemical Sciences 15:291-294.

Kjellen, L., and Lindahl, U., 1991. Proteoglycans: Structures and interactions. Annual Review of Biochemistry 60:443-475.

Knowles, B. H., Blatt, M. R., Tester, M., et al., 1989. A cytosolic ê-endo-toxin from Bacillus thurigiensis var. israelensis forms cation-selective channels in planar lipid bilayers. FEBS Letters 244:259-262.

Koblan, K. S., Kohl, N. E., Omer, C. A., et al., 1996. Farnesyltransferase inhibitors: A new class of cancer chemotherapeutics. Biochemical Society Transactions 24:688-692.

Lasky, L. A., 1995. Selectin-carbohydrate interactions and the initiation of the inflammatory response. Annual Review of Biochemistry 64:113-139.

Lennarz, W. J., 1980. The Biochemistry of Glycoproteins and Proteoglycans. New York: Plenum Press.

Lodish, H. F., 1991. Recognition of complex oligosaccharides by the mul-tisubunit asialoglycoprotein receptor. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 16:374 -377.

Marchesi, V. T., 1984. Structure and function of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton. Progress in Clinical Biology Research 159:1-12.

Marchesi, V. T., 1985. Stabilizing infrastructure of cell membranes.

Annual Review of Cell Biology 1:531 -561.

McNeil, M., Darvill, A. G., Fry, S. C., and Albersheim, P., 1984. Structure and function of the primary cell walls of plants. Annual Review of Biochemistry 53:625-664.

Op den Kamp, J. A. F., 1979. Lipid asymmetry in membranes. Annual Review of Biochemistry 48:47-71.

Park, H-W., Boduluri, S. R., Moomaw, J. F., et al., 1997. Crystal structure of protein farnesyltransferase at 2.25 Angstrom resolution. Science 275: 1800-1804.

Pigman, W., and Horton, D., 1972. The Carbohydrates. New York: Academic Press.

Rademacher, T. W., Parekh, R. B., and Dwek, R. A., 1988. Glycobiology. Annual Review of Biochemistry 57:785-838.

Robertson, R. N., 1983. The Lively Membranes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ruoslahti, E., 1989. Proteoglycans in cell regulation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 264:13369-13372.

Seelig, J., and Seelig, A., 1981. Lipid conformation in model membranes and biological membranes. Quarterly Review of Biophysics 13:19-61.

Sefton, B., and Buss, J. E., 1987. The covalent modification of eukaryotic proteins with lipid. Journal of Cell Biology 104:1449-1453.

Sharon, N., 1980. Carbohydrates. Scientific American 243:90-102.

Sharon, N., 1984. Glycoproteins. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 9:198-202.

Singer, S. J., and Nicolson, G. L., 1972. The fluid mosaic model of the structure of cell membranes. Science 175:720-731.

Singer, S. J., and Yaffe, M. P., 1990. Embedded or not? Hydrophobic sequences and membranes. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 15:369-373.

Tanford, C., 1980. The Hydrophobic Effect: Formation of Micelles and Biological Membranes, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley-Interscience.

Towler, D. A., Gordon, J. I., Adams, S. P., and Glaser, L., 1988. The biology and enzymology of eukaryotic protein acylation. Annual Review of Biochemistry 57:69-99.

Unwin, N., and Henderson, R., 1984. The structure of proteins in biological membranes. Scientific American 250:78-94.

Wirtz, K. W. A., 1991. Phospholipid transfer proteins. Annual Review of Biochemistry 60:73-99.

It takes a membrane to make sense out of disorder in biology. You have to be able to catch energy and hold it, storing precisely the needed amount and releasing it in measured shares. A cell does this, and so do the organelles inside. . . . To stay alive, you have to be able to hold out against equilibrium, maintain imbalance, bank against entropy, and you can only transact this business with membranes in our kind of world.

Lewis Thomas, "The World's Biggest Membrane," The Lives of a Cell (1974)

Outline

10.1 • Passive Diffusion

10.2 • Facilitated Diffusion

10.3 • Active Transport Systems

10.4 • Transport Processes Driven by ATP

10.5 • Transport Processes Driven by Light

10.6 • Transport Processes Driven by Ion

Gradients

10.7 • Group Translocation

10.8 • Specialized Membrane Pores

10.9 • Ionophore Antibiotics

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