FIGURE 4.16 • Proton NMR spectra of several amino acids. Zero on the chemical shift scale is defined by the resonance of tetramethylsilane (TMS). (Adapted from Aldrich Library of NMR Spectra..)

teins. More sophisticated NMR measurements at very high magnetic fields are also used to determine the three-dimensional structures of peptides and even small proteins.

4.6 • Separation and Analysis of Amino Acid Mixtures Chromatographic Methods

The purification and analysis of individual amino acids from complex mixtures was once a very difficult process. Today, however, the biochemist has a wide variety of methods available for the separation and analysis of amino acids, or for that matter, any of the other biological molecules and macromolecules we

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