Aquaponics Projects For Beginners

Aquaponics 4 You

Aquaponics is a complete beginners guide to learn how to harness the power of both fish and plants. The waste products that fish produce are food for the plants, so that your plants can grow twice as fast as normal plants. Not only will the grow faster, they will also produce 10 times more than the average garden will ever dream of. And you don't ever have to weed! This is a 100% organic way to grow your own food. The Aquaponics guide comes in PDF format and gives you access to easy step-by-step videos to learn to set up your own garden. The book gives you the tools to build a small home garden or a multi-acre farming operation. What you do with the information is up to you! Not only does the complete instruction course come with everything you need to get started, it includes six extra books that cover organic gardening, flower gardening, organic farming, worm farms, cooking organically, and eating healthy. Don't waste your time on a small garden that needs weeding and constant care. Use Aquaponics to grow your best garden every. Read more...

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Aquatic Genetic Resources Food fish aquaculture

Over the past century, the worldwide demand for animal protein was met primarily by cattle ranching and ocean fisheries. With the ecosystems supporting both food sources pushed to the limits of production, growth of wild fisheries has stalled. The slack has been taken up by farmed fish production, which tripled to over 30 million tonnes during the 1990s and is expected to surpass cattle production by 2010. Currently, aquaculture accounts for more than one-third of global fisheries production (FAO, 2000) and is expected to hold a greater share of the market than all other fisheries by the year 2020 (Rifkin, 1998). fish as their main source of animal protein. Approximately 85 per cent of fish farming takes place in developing countries. While the environmental effects of aquaculture (especially salmon and shrimp farming) remain controversial, significant increases in aquaculture production may be essential to global food security. In 1998, Chinese aquaculture accounted for over...

Impacts of aquaculture of ornamentals on community fisheries and ecological values

The culturing of ornamental fish stirs up none of the controversy that surrounds the farming of salmon and shrimp. Indeed, some environmentalists might assume it could have a beneficial effect by reducing fishing pressure on vulnerable or endangered species. While that may be true in some cases, competition by aquaculture with the wild trade can be devastating for local fisheries and, ultimately, for fish habitat. Many indigenous and local communities are completely or substantially dependent on the ornamental fish trade. efforts to protect the fish's rainforest habitat. The case study describes the efforts of Project Piaba to promote sustainable livelihoods for local fishers, protect fish habitat, and anticipate the impacts of competition from aquaculture in other countries. It also illustrates the complications inherent in designing access policies that take into account different uses of aquatic genetic resources, different types of collections, and the cultures of fishing...

The threat of aquaculture to the wild fishery

If the Barcelos fishery is hurt by competition from a new aquaculture industry in another country, that too will be an unintended consequence of not understanding or acknowledging local conditions. The Florida aquaculture industry would simply be following the law of supply and demand. If hobbyists want cultured tetras because they're cheaper and less fragile and there's a willing seller, why should governments intervene Already, over 90 per cent of freshwater ornamental sales are farmed fish. Popular home aquarium species such as guppies, mollies and neon tetras have been bred for decades. Advances in breeding technologies are simply making it possible to culture species once thought impossible to farm the cardinal tetra being one of the most recent examples. Barcelos is by no means unique in its concern about the impact of the continuing expansion of ornamental aquaculture on the capture industry. In Sri Lanka, for instance, the ornamental fishery represents 8 per cent of the volume...

Executive Order 247 and aquaculture

Could be interpreted to include the collection of wild broodstock for food fish or ornamentals aquaculture. In theory, the provisions might even have applied to the ICLARM's collection of germplasm from locally cultured tilapia under the GIFT project. However, there is no indication that EO247 was intended to deal to collections for aquaculture, and its application to such collections remains a grey area. The normal practice (by SEAFDEC, for example) is simply to purchase broodstock from local fishermen, who appear to be content with the current arrangement.

Food fish aquaculture

One of the key distinctions between bioprospecting and aquaculture is that the development of promising new strains for farming may require collection from many dispersed locations, so that several communities and in some cases several nations could be involved in the negotiation of agreements. This would have been the case, for instance, if national access and benefit-sharing laws had applied to ICLARM's collections of wild tilapia broodstock in four African countries in the late 1980s (see Case Study 4). Such a diversity of communities contributing to development of a product is unlikely to occur in the plant world, and it raises the question of how benefits can most effectively be shared and how the process of negotiating benefits can most efficiently be carried out in a way that is cost effective for a fish breeder and fair to participating communities. Those access laws that already exist appear to operate on the assumption that agreements will be bilateral (that is, between a...

Gene Drain Halting the erosion of genetic diversity

Genetic diversity within species is the foundation for aquaculture, pharmaceutical development and for all the other existing and potential uses of aquatic genetic resources, in addition to being valuable in its own right. The more genetic diversity there is within a species, the greater the likelihood of characteristics that may some day be invaluable for improvement of farmed stocks. For example, each of the six species of Pacific salmon contains several hundred stocks, a small number of which are currently considered commercially valuable. Salmon are sensitive to minute changes in ocean temperatures. A stock that is capable of adapting to warmer temperatures produced by climate change might be invaluable for aqua-

Conserving and sharing aquatic biodiversity Filling policy gaps

New uses of aquatic biodiversity require new policy approaches. The introduction or expansion of food fish aquaculture, for example, creates the need for policy makers to consider a wide variety of issues such as environmental impacts of fish farming, potential health risks to consumers of genetically modified products, access by fish farmers to wild broodstock and transfers of live broodstock from their ecosystems of origin, research into the different genetic characteristics of different wild stocks and conservation of wild genetic diversity. Developing policy approaches that accommodate both capture fisheries and aquaculture presents a challenge for policy makers. Governments are paying increasing attention to aquaculture, but policy development has largely been reactive focusing on public concerns that attract the most publicity, such as environmental impacts and genetic modification. Traditionally, managers of wild fisheries have been preoccupied with the management of fish...

Whose to share Ownership and control of aquatic resources

Southern countries with the richest concentrations of biodiversity are usually the primary providers of genetic resources, and northern countries with highly developed technologies are the primary users. This applies particularly to crop enhancement (through genetic modification of plant characteristics) and to the development of pharmaceutical and industrial products through screening of plant and marine samples for biological effects. It's less true of aquaculture, primarily because fish are most successfully bred in conditions that most closely approximate their original habitats either in the same country or at similar latitudes and temperate regions have their share of potentially useful aquatic biodiversity.

Thinking locally Rights of indigenous and local communities

The Convention takes a tentative step towards the recognition of community rights. Article 8(j) encourages parties to the convention to encourage the sharing of benefits from the use of genetic resources with indigenous and local communities whose knowledge contributes to that use. The logic behind this provision is that users of plant genetic resources (for example, seed companies and pharmaceutical companies) depend on access to traditional knowledge about crop strains or medicinal uses of plants. The same cannot be said of users of aquatic genetic resources. Agriculture dates back several thousand years the history of aquaculture, with the notable exception of China, can be measured in decades. While local fishermen may have extensive familiarity with the habits of aquatic life, this type of knowledge may be irrelevant to fish farmers or scientists developing new strains of cultured fish. Similarly, pharmaceutical researchers prospecting for marine organisms may be looking for...

Acting globally Towards national laws on access to aquatic resources

The resource, the type of benefit to be negotiated, and the sheer time and effort it takes to negotiate. A pharmaceutical company needs to consider that the odds of developing a marketable drug from a collected sample might be one in 10,000 or lower. Similarly, an aquaculture company collecting wild broodstock may have little idea of the likelihood of achieving a desired commercial result. One reason why the CBD takes such pains to mention non-monetary benefits such as technology transfer is that royalties may be an empty promise, while a significant upfront payment may be intolerably burdensome for a commercial collector who is making numerous collections, sometimes in several countries. In addition, developing countries have been anxious to acquire the technologies that will enable them to further their own research and development expertise in the use of genetic resources. Academic researchers generally have far less capacity than corporations to make generous deals with...

Case Study 4 Chapter 4 Genetic improvement of farmed tilapia Lessons from the GIFT project

Tropical finfish currently account for about 90 per cent of global aquaculture production for food. Most species currently farmed are genetically very similar to wild, undomesticated stocks. For aquaculture to be able to meet the expected global increase in demand for fish protein, there is a need for improved strains that are faster-growing, resistant to disease and suited to a variety of pond-farming conditions. The situation is analogous to the early days of agriculture. As the collections were made before the CBD came into effect, obtaining consent from communities where the tilapias were collected wasn't yet an issue. Two decades later, following a further series of ICLARM projects, tilapia farming in rural Africa may finally be about to get a fresh start. In 2000, ICLARM began a project to transfer GIFT's selective breeding technology from the Philippines to sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt. The objectives of the new project were to train African scientists on the use of the...

The Gene Rush Finding New Value in Aquatic Biodiversity

Nowhere does the saying seem more appropriate than in the way we treat underwater life. Our scientific understanding of aquatic biodiversity lags far behind our knowledge of terrestrial life. Naturally, we're quicker to understand the potential for commercial exploitation than we are to decipher and deal with threats to aquatic biodiversity. Food fish aquaculture, which barely existed three decades ago, has since emerged as the fastest growing food industry. Along the ocean floor, the modern equivalent of the gold prospector is the pharmaceutical company researcher, sifting through samples of sponges, ascidians and other bottom-dwelling organisms in the hope of finding cures for cancer and other diseases. As in the plant world, advances in genetics signal that we've barely scratched the surface in our quest for new (and often controversial) uses for aquatic life, whether plugging a flounder gene into a strawberry to increase its resistance to frost or...

The Blue Revolution Unlocking the secrets of aquatic genetic resources

The application of biotechnology to aquaculture has sparked a 'blue revolution'. The use of fish hatcheries to supply farms and enhance wild stocks is now commonplace, and we are now well into the second stage of the revolution, namely the use of genetic engineering including splicing genes from one fish strain or species into another to produce desired characteristics. If an aquaculture company in New England gets the green light from the US Food and Drug Administration, a 'Super Salmon' injected with a gene from an Arctic pout will become the first transgenic fish available to consumers. And the valuable commercial uses of aquatic genetic resources go beyond aquaculture and are not limited to genetic manipulation. By far the most active players in the field, at least in terms of financial investment, are pharmaceutical companies targeting the development of anti-cancer drugs and other medicines inspired by chemical compounds produced by marine organisms. Getting the most value out...

Addressing environmental risks and controversies

The CBD calls on member countries to adopt the precautionary principle in biodiversity management. The difficulty of doing this is nowhere more evident than in identifying and addressing the risks of industrial aquaculture. Public concerns are growing. While the pond farming of species such as the tilapia in developing countries may actually produce some environmental benefits by recycling waste and producing fertilizer, the risks of genetic and other environmental effects are considerable, just as they are for other species such as salmon, shrimp, and yellowtail. The biodiversity effects of mariculture have recently been reviewed, and symposia and consultations now regularly confront the environmental risks of a variety of aquaculture technologies. It is now clear that the impact of food fish aquaculture cannot be measured simply in terms of increased productivity. Moreover, it's pointless to defend aquaculture by saying it holds the answer to the world's food problems when the main...

Collections for breeding

1 As in food fish aquaculture, make an expedition to the fish's natural habitat and collect specimens from the wild. This may involve making a deal with local fishers to do the work. It may also involve taking advantage of their knowledge of where to find fish and how to catch them. In these circumstances, collections for breeding ornamentals are comparable to collections for food fish aquaculture.

Pharmaceutical and industrial uses of marine organisms

The value of aquatic genetic resources is by no means confined to reproductive cells. In strictly monetary terms, the chemical compounds produced by many marine organisms are far more likely to be a source of 'blue gold', in this case for the pharmaceutical companies engaged in their collection. As in the case of food fish aquaculture, the future commercial value of these aquatic genetic resources will certainly depend on the success of research and development programmes. However, it will also depend on the regulatory requirements for access to and use of aquatic genetic resources.

Steps towards an international system for aquatic genetic resources

As we have seen, aquatic genetic resources are important not only in large-scale, intensive aquaculture (the closest parallel to modern agriculture), but also in small-scale farming systems that are more connected with natural ecosystems, as well as in the production of wild stocks that continue to be provided by ecosystems that are essentially unaltered. The collection and use of aquatic genetic resources for these kinds of endeavours is just beginning. In some ways this is a good thing for policy makers, because with the CBD in place in so many countries the ground-rules are far clearer than they ever were for plants. The problem for aquatic genetic resource collections is thus less one of knowing the rules and profiting from the experience in the plant world, and more a matter of organization and coordination. One similarity is, however, very clear as in agriculture, aquaculture seed supplies are becoming concentrated in fewer and fewer hands as fish farmers look to outside sources...

Countries interdependence on genetic resources

Interdependence among countries for crop genetic resources has been a primary stimulus for international collaboration in their exchange and use. Examples are the formation of the CGIAR germplasm collections, and efforts to develop a multilateral system for access to genetic resources and the sharing of benefits. There is much less evidence of such collaboration in the fish world, although this may change as further progress is made in fish breeding efforts and exchange (Raymond, 1999). The existence of regional aquaculture networks such as the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia is evidence of such a trend, as is FAO's work towards establishing the FINGER information system for aquatic animal genetic resources.

Kinds of demand for access

As we have seen, collections of aquatic genetic resources are developing in an ad hoc way. Pharmaceutical and aquaculture companies, research institutes and government agencies have been the primary initiators. In addition, some indigenous communities have recently begun cryopreserving fish sperm. Communication about the nature, purpose, location and indeed the very existence of collections is poor. As communication improves, demands for access to collections (now so commonplace for plant genetic resources) will begin to occur. What will these demands be like, and what should be the policies to deal with them Examples of access demands might include a government agency requesting genetic resources collected by a conservation society, an aquaculture company requesting genetic resources held by an indigenous community, or a university researcher wishing to experiment with genetic resources collected by government, industry or a local community. All such requests will raise a number of...

Managing aquatic genetic resources Filling the policy vacuum

In 1992, the CBD emphasized the need for effective national policies for the conservation and use of biodiversity and genetic resources. More than ten years later, a few developing countries have put new laws into place, but most countries have made little progress towards effective policies for aquatic genetic resources. Such policies are needed not only to ensure better management but also to pave the way for policies for access to aquatic genetic resources. The absence of clear or enforceable policies regarding fisheries management, aquaculture development and gene banking, for example, could complicate developing guidelines for evaluating access applications. Clear policies, supported by adequate information, can also facilitate the negotiation of access agreements by determining how the provisions of an agreement can promote conservation, as well as the usefulness of aquatic genetic resources to donor countries and communities. Yet the degradation of fish stocks and expansion of...

The bottom line Poor information equals poor policy

Policies for the conservation and sustainable use of aquatic genetic resources are still poorly developed in most countries. Those that exist have tended to be developed in reaction to crises, through closure of vanishing fisheries such as cod in Atlantic Canada. Until recently, policy making for fisheries and aquaculture has rarely considered genetic resources, concentrating instead on harvest levels of individual species and protection of fish health. Mismanagement of aquatic genetic resources has continued in spite of growing public awareness of environmental issues (Bartley and Pullin, 1999). Several related factors contribute to the current policy vacuum. In addition to limitations on knowledge of aquatic compared to other types of biological resources, the inaccessibility of the aquatic realm and the difficulty of policing what cannot be seen act as deterrents. Lack of understanding of the genetic structure of fish populations has been an obvious impediment if genetic diversity...

Aquatic biodiversity issues The countries views

And 'responsible fishing', each of which was cited by 70 per cent of the countries examined. Calls for better governance were near universal, and generally represent a desire to find new ways of including local communities in fisheries management. 'Alien species', 'native species' and 'aquaculture' were less frequently cited on their own, but together totalled 80 per cent of the countries a clear indication that the raw material of aquatic genetic diversity is also a subject for concern among planners.

Ownership of aquatic genetic resources Agreements and claims

The concept of fish being caught for food is straightforward enough, but when fish take on the grander identity of 'aquatic genetic resources', everything changes. Under that guise, they're being used as broodstock for aquaculture operations, or perhaps their DNA is being transplanted into a different species. In those circumstances, it might be said, a fish is no longer a fish but a collection of 'genetic material' or, as the CBD puts it, 'material containing functional units of heredity' (eg sperm, eggs or DNA). When fish are used as aquatic genetic resources, ownership takes on a whole different level of importance both because that fish may be worth much more as a genetic resource than as a barbecued fillet and because the knowledge of how to use the fish as a genetic resource has its own separate worth more on this later in the chapter. The bottom line is that the multiplicity of fisheries management regimes in different countries can't do the job of determining who has the right...

Genetically Altering Fish

The possibility of genetically altered fish is causing much discussion worldwide. By inserting extra genes into fish, aquaculture farmers are hoping to create fish that grow faster and fight off disease better than wild fish. Researchers have found at least eleven fish species (including salmon, flounder, and trout) that could be altered genetically so that they In 1853, rainbow trout were first commercially raised in aquatic farms within the United States. In the 1870s, the U.S. created a system of federal and state hatcheries to raise fish in fresh water that later matured in salt water. Some of these fish stocked public and private waters for game fishing. However, only since the twentieth century, as the world's population rapidly grew and as people ate more fish, did aquaculture become important for feeding the world's population. Trout were first farmed commercially in the western parts of the United States during the 1950s. Later that decade, shrimp hatcheries and farms were...

Pandoras patent box Fighting for the right to own genes and genetic inventions

Genetic modification of animal life (the 'Harvard mouse' is a controversial example) has drawn attention to the need to address demands to allow patents on living creatures. Pharmaceutical companies and bioprospectors collecting on their behalf have been actively patenting processes to develop drugs and cosmetics derived from research based on aquatic genetic resources that range from marine invertebrates to algae. Patenting of new fish varieties (such as the Super Salmon and Arctic char varieties) and of processes used in their development has been more limited but can be expected to increase significantly as the aquaculture industry expands. The US Patent and Trademark Office led the way by approving a patent protecting a method of increasing the growth rate of a transgenic salmon (Correa, 1999).

The poverty barrier in fishing communities

In some cases, poverty may have origins in the loss of traditional lands in others it may be a result of overfishing by roaming industrial fishing fleets that depopulate local stocks in any number of communities. Often landlessness and overfishing are linked in a vicious cycle. In Bangladesh, many rural fishing communities have lost their lands to conversion for agricultural purposes by 'patron classes'. This loss of land has led to a greater reliance on fish for food, and the resulting overfishing has depleted fish stocks in rivers, lakes and ponds, and damaged aquatic ecosystems. Increasing landlessness and poverty have also resulted in the incidental loss of traditional pond aquaculture, as poorer farmers can no longer afford to grow the larger carp species that form the mainstay of the aquaculture network (Lewis et al, 1996).

The knowledge knot Traditional knowledge and access to aquatic genetic resources

Although some countries have a lengthy history of pond aquaculture, industrial aquaculture is a relatively new activity, and the enhancement of farmed fish strains relies almost exclusively on collection of wild broodstock. There is no real parallel in fish farming to the situation in the plant world, where the experience and knowledge of traditional farmers makes a major contribution to crop development. Nor is there any strong parallel in marine bioprospecting to the need for indigenous knowledge in developing drugs based on traditional uses of medicinal plants. As following sections in this chapter indicate, traditional communities have extensive knowledge of aquatic genetic resources. It's not a question of whether the knowledge exists but what type it is and whether collectors need it for the most predominant uses of aquatic genetic resources aquaculture and pharmaceuticals development. Fish breeders may look to local communities for help in finding and catching broodstock. In...

Collections for food fish farming

While industrial aquaculture has a very brief history, rural pond farming has occurred for hundreds of years in some developing countries thousands in the case of carp in China. Even though local communities involved in pond farming may have developed a substantial body of knowledge, a shorter history is not the only factor differentiating traditional knowledge in fish farming communities from that in crop farming communities. While it is possible for new strains to evolve in pond farming, their appearance may just as easily occur by accident as by design. At any rate, it is highly unlikely that breeders involved in industrial aquaculture would choose to collect broodstock from pond farmers rather than simply collecting fish from the wild.

The beginnings of GIFT

In the mid-1980s, ICLARM developed an aquaculture programme based on the recognition that more productive and profitable aquaculture in developing countries would depend on development of better breeds of farmed aquatic organisms and better farm environments. Tilapias were chosen as test species because of their importance in warm water aquaculture and their usefulness in investigating the application of genetics in aquaculture. The proposed programme, which employed both in situ and ex situ conservation of genetic resources, would proceed in three phases documentation of genetic resources (wild and farmed) evaluation of their culture performance and the use of germplasm in breeding programmes. This programme became the foundation for the GIFT project, which was started in 1988 with the objective of developing more productive stocks of tilapia by selection for high growth rate and other economically important traits (eg disease resistance and maturation rate), and providing the...

International concerns about the use of aquatic germplasm

As African access to the GIFT strain would not be likely in the short term, the group suggested that ICLARM recognize the African contribution by increasing its commitment to African aquacultural development, although there was much uncertainty about how this might be done (ICLARM, 1992). One meeting participant later commented 'The Biodiversity Convention does not provide regulations for compensation for past contributions. However, as it is important that Africa conserves wild tilapia relatives to keep them available for future use, some benefits accruing from utilization of tilapia germplasm must be returned' (Rosendal, 1992).

Returning benefits to Africa

S. melanotheron has long been an important resource for poor fishermen using a variety of fishing gear and traditional methods of fisheries enhancement, the so-called 'brushparks'. However, indigenous knowledge and the management practices that have traditionally been used to conserve its populations are breaking down because of human population increases and habitat degradation. S. melanotheron is not currently farmed, but the national institutions in Ghana and ICLARM believe it has potential for both brackish water and freshwater farming and that its development for this purpose would reduce importation of exotic species for aquaculture, which could have adverse environmental impacts. Activities under the S. melanotheron project in 1998 included collection of more than 400 tissue samples in several countries by national institutions to determine the genetic diversity of the subspecies obtaining indigenous knowledge on the biology, ecology and use of the brackish water...

Pond farming and capture fisheries

In some northern countries, capture fisheries organizations fiercely oppose competition from industrial aquaculture, arguing that it will not only put them out of business but also have an adverse effect on aquatic biodiversity. But equating the industrial aquaculture of species like salmon with rural pond farming of species like tilapia is comparing apples and oranges. The need for a massive increase in the availability of fish protein to feed growing populations in developing countries is undisputed, and to ensure food security, governments will need to do everything they can to promote both sustainable capture fisheries and pond farming. Small-scale pond farming can substantially benefit the economies of the smallest villages and communities, some of which may rely on capture fisheries as well.

The scope of access laws Biological and genetic resources

Most laws do not distinguish between biological and genetic resources, or, as in the case of the OAU model law, define biological resources to include genetic resources. The access provisions of Costa Rica's biodiversity law apply only to genetic components (containing functional units of heredity) and biochemicals. In all cases, the scope of the laws is broad enough to include all forms of aquatic genetic resources, although nowhere is it apparent that collection for aquaculture has been contemplated. For example, the ASEAN framework defines 'bioprospecting' as the search for wild species with genes that produce better crops and medicines, or the exploration of biodiversity for commercially valuable genetic and biological resources. Collections of broodstock for industrial aquaculture haven't yet become an issue in developing countries.

Making benefit sharing work Responsibilities of industrial countries

As illustrated in our discussion of biopiracy complaints in Chapter 3, this is an issue that has received considerable attention in the plant world and has largely been ignored in discussions about the commercial use of aquatic resources outside of collections for the pharmaceutical industry. This will undoubtedly change with the global expansion of commercial aquaculture and, with it, an increased interest in international collection of the broodstock and germplasm that might produce the best trains. Case Study 4 describes ICLARM's initiatives to collect tilapia broodstock in several African countries in order to develop new strains in the Philippines that are now widely farmed throughout Southeast Asia. ICLARM did so with the permission of the source countries and for an altruistic purpose ensuring the availability of more hardy and productive strains for rural fish farmers. At the time of the initial collections, ICLARM did not anticipate that patenting would be an issue, although...

Breeding of ornamentals

Sophisticated aquaculture technologies are increasingly making it possible to culture species never before bred in captivity, creating new demands for wild broodstock with desirable coloration and markings. However, it may be very difficult for regulatory agencies to make effective distinctions between collections for sale to hobbyists and those that will be used by breeders. Breeders who buy broodstock through existing import and export channels do not necessarily need to make their intent known. Moreover, fishermen already involved in the live trade may be quite happy to meet collectors' needs for a small informal payment. Another distinction between the ornamental and food fish industries is worthy of note. Paradoxically, NGOs that oppose food fish aquaculture because of its environmental impacts may support the culture of ornamental fish because they assume it will reduce the pressure on wild fish populations. However, competition from breeders may have a grave impact on...

Seahorse culture in Handumon Philippines

For aquaculture to contribute to conservation, it must serve as an alternative to fishing, transforming seahorse fishers into seahorse farmers. Aquaculture that does not include seahorse fishers will not reduce pressure on wild populations, because seahorse demand is considered limitless. For seahorse aquaculture to be accessible to seahorse fishers, it must be low technology and low risk to avoid impoverishing them further.

Community fisheries management Malalison Island Philippines

In 1991, with funding assistance from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), the Aquaculture Department of the SEAFDEC began a pilot project in community-based fisheries management (CFRM) at Malalison Island. Its objectives were to develop the community into a strong organization that could be granted territorial use rights to strengthen fisheries management, encourage supplemental livelihoods, regenerate fish habitats, and increase fish stocks. After SEAFDEC and its NGO partner, PROCESS Foundation, conducted initial biological and socio-economic research in the community, the newly created Fishermen's Association of Malalison Island (FAMI) acted as a formal link between the project and the community. The project then provided FAMI members with training in leadership and communication skills development, organizational strengthening, cooperatives management, gender sensitivity, legal and policy issues and values formation. The training also included discussions of...

Pillar Two Management of aquatic resources at the genetic level

Governments need a set of policies specific to the management of aquatic genetic resources. Such species-specific policies are already well developed in the plant world. Policy makers on the aquatic side cannot afford to lag behind, because genetic uses are expanding quickly and bring with them complex social and environmental issues. Too often, governments have been too slow to act (eg policies on gene banking) or have jumped the gun (eg policies supporting net pen aquaculture without sufficient scientific information). A measured approach to policy making is needed not just for uses of aquatic genetic resources but also for their movement and handling. Under what conditions should transfers between watersheds and introductions of exotic species be permitted Where should collectors be permitted to collect broodstock or other genetic material, and in what amounts

Biopiracy and aquatic genetic resources

It's hard to imagine aquatic resources parallels for the biopiracy examples described above. One might have occurred if Aqua Bounty had developed and patented the 'Super Salmon' after learning from indigenous people about the anti-freeze properties of the ocean pout, which were used to create the new strain. Even then, the company might have argued that the desirable characteristics of the pout were obvious to any observer. Traditional knowledge of aquatic biodiversity may be abundant but is not necessarily relevant to uses of aquatic genetic resources such as aquaculture and the development of pharmaceutical products from animals that live in areas that are inaccessible to local people.

Case Study 2 Chapter 2 No Policy No access A salmon farmers frustrated efforts to collect genetically pure broodstock

Creative Salmon, an aquaculture business farming chinook salmon in British Columbia, decided to enhance its stocks by cross-breeding them with Yukon River chinook. What makes Yukon chinook desirable is the high oil content that is characteristic of fish inhabiting Arctic waters and an important asset for sale of salmon to Japanese markets.

What to conserve

Because so little is known about fish species and stocks that may become important to aquaculture, industry and conservation in the future, it is important to conserve not only currently economically valuable aquatic genetic resources but also those that may be useful in the future. In southern countries, fisheries have generally proceeded in the complete absence of information on the very existence of individual genetic stocks. In other words, there has been a tendency to focus on abundance of fish stocks that are economically valuable now rather than the genetic diversity needed to ensure future value.

Why bank fish genes

The collection of genetic resources for fish is coloured by a sense of urgency that reflects the extreme pressures on aquatic ecosystems. By the time aquaculturists and hatchery managers make significant progress in developing genetically improved broodstocks, there may be much less wild genetic material left to work with. Overfishing and habitat destruction have both taken an immense toll, and climate change may well contribute to further losses of aquatic genetic diversity. Gene banking helps ensure that genetic variability of threatened fish stocks will not be lost while efforts to restore and preserve habitat continue. For species with economic value in aquaculture, gene banking safeguards biodiversity for later use in selective breeding.


Tropical finfish currently account for about 90 per cent of global aquaculture production for food. Most species currently farmed are genetically very similar to wild, undomesticated stocks. For aquaculture to be able to meet the expected global increase in demand for fish protein, there is a need for improved strains that are faster growing, resistant to disease, and suited to a variety of pond farming conditions. The situation is analogous to the early days of agriculture.

Agency coordination

Historically, government agencies have been defined by their responsibility for separate resources (agriculture, mining, forestry, fisheries), each operating in an insular manner. Both fisheries and aquaculture are often subsumed under larger departments such as agriculture, and agencies combined within a fisheries department may work at cross purposes or without integrated strategic plans. The The effectiveness of aquatic resources policies has too frequently been undermined by turf wars, lack of communication, and indecision over resource conflicts (eg between aquaculture and commercial fisheries, fisheries and forestry mining, community and commercial fisheries). Governments need to take a stronger approach to promoting cooperation among all relevant agencies in the development, implementation and enforcement of aquatic resource policies, with clearly defined agency responsibilities at each level.

Foods and Feeding

Angelfish Newly Hatched

Dry Foods A commercially successful food must have three attributes. It must be attractive to the buyer, attractive to fish, and it must be good for fish. What is attractive to the fish or buyer has nothing to do with nutritional value. For example, foods packaged as suitable for herbivores are often colored green those hawked as rich in brine shrimp or worms are red, and those claiming rich amounts of egg yolk will be yellow. The colors of these niche market foods result in part from the addition of food coloring agents. The colors simulate and suggest high concentrations of important ingredients. The package often has a profusion of colors. Many consumers pay a premium for foods with colorful packaging, or that carry an aura of expertise (German foods, Japanese foods). But all nations use Ihe same nutrition science in their aquaculture, and Ihe only package information thai counts are the ingredients and their order. (Ingredients are listed in order of their percentage in the...

Genetic improvement

One way of increasing aquaculture production is through the use of genetic improvement techniques, including selective breeding, chromosome manipulation, hydridization, production of monosex animals and, more recently, gene transfer. While selective breeding may be the best long-term strategy, a variety of short-term strategies are used for an immediate increase in production. In Venezuela, hybrids of cachama and morocoto account for perhaps 80 per cent of the aquaculture of these species. Manipulation of the sex of tilapia broodstock through hormone-induced sex reversal and subsequent breeding is used to produce predominantly male tilapia with high growth rates. Although only a small percentage of aquaculture production currently comes from genetically improved species (Gjedrem, 1997), support for the promotion of genetic improvement programmes is well entrenched in development circles. The Strategic Plan of the World Fish Center (formerly ICLARM), a member of the Consultative Group...

Artemia nauplii

The eggs of Artemia float to the surface of these saline waters and collect in windrows on the lee shores, where they are collected, cleaned, and packaged for the aquaculture market, with about 5 percent diverted to the tropical fish market. These eggs are vacuum canned and may remain viable for years in suspended animation, especially if the cans are stored in a freezer. Small packages of brine shrimp eggs are available for sale in pet stores, but I don't buy them. These packages are not airtight, and their eggs are usually damaged by humidity and air, resulting in poor hatches, or none at all. I purchase brine shrimp eggs by the 15-ounce (0.4-kg) vacuum packed can (not plastic package), available from mail-order aquarium and aquaculture suppliers. These eggs, stored in the freezer until use, typically give hatches of 85 to 95 percent and are the choice of breeders.

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