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FIGURE 4-2 Cardiac cycle. The seven phases of the cardiac cycle are (1) atrial systole; (2) isovolumetric contraction; (3) rapid ejection; (4) reduced ejection; (5), isovolumetric relaxation; (6) rapid filling; and (7) reduced filling. LV, left ventricle; ECG, electrocardiogram; a, a-wave; c, c-wave; y, v-wave; AP, aortic pressure; LVP, left ventricular pressure; LAP, left atrial pressure; LVEDV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVESV, left ventricular end-systolic volume, S1-S4, four heart sounds.

LV Volume (ml)

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