11. Mummenbrauer T, Janus F, Müller B, Wiesmüller L, Deppert W, Grosse F. p53 protein exhibits 3' to 5' exonuclease activity. Cell 1996;85:1089-1099. 26.

12. Hollstein M, Sidransky D, Vogelstein B, Harris CC. p53 mutations in human cancers. Science 1991;253:49-53.

13. Hainaut P, Hernandez T, Robinson A, Rodriguez- 27 Tome P, Flores T, Hollstein M, Harris CC, Montesano

R. IARC database of p53 gene mutations in human tumors and cell lines: updated compilation, revised formats and new visualization tools. Nucleic Acids Res 1998;26:205-213. 28.

14. Iwamoto KS, Mizuno T, Ito T, Tsuyama N, Ky-oizumi S, Seyama T. Gain-of-function p53 mutations enhance alteration of the T-cell receptor following X-irradiation, independently of the cell cycle and cell survival. Cancer Res 1996;56:3862-3865. Malkin D. p53 and the Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1993;66:83-92. Levine AJ. The p53 protein and its interaction with the oncogene of the small DNA tumor viruses. Virology 1990;177:419-426.

Hoppe-Seyler F, Butz K. Molecular mechanisms of virus-induced carcinogenesis: the interaction of viral factors with cellular tumor suppressor proteins. J Mol Med 1995;73:529-538.

Shaulsky G, Goldfinger N, Tosky MS, Levine AJ, Rotter V. Nuclear localization is essential for the activity of p53 protein. Oncogene 1991;6:2055-2065. Oliner JD, Pietenpol JA, Thiagalingam S, Gyuris J, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B. Oncoprotein MDM2 conceals the activation domain of tumor suppressor p53. Nature 1993;362:857-867.

Moll UM, Riou G, Levine AJ. Two distinct mechanisms alter p53 in breast cancer: Mutation and nuclear exclusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89:7262-7266.

Harris CC, Hollstein M. Clinical Implication of the p53 tumor-suppressor gene. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1318-1327.

Sozzi G, Miozzo M, Donghi R, Pilotti S, Cariani CT, Pastorino U, Delia Porta G, Pierotti MA. Deletions of 17p and p53 mutations in preneoplastic lesions of the lung. Cancer Res 1992;52:6079-6082. Sozzi G, Miozzo M, Pastorino U, Pilotti S, Donghi R, Giarola M, De Gregorio L, Manenti G, Radice P, Minoletti F et al. Genetic evidence for an independent origin of multiple preneoplastic and neoplastic lung lesions. Cancer Res 1995;55:135-140. Fearon ER, Vogelstein B.A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis. Cell 1990;61:759-767. Baker SJ, Preisinger AC, Jessup JM, Paraskeva C, Markowitz S, Wilson JKV, Hamilton S, Vogelstein B. p53 gene mutations occur in combination with 17p allelic deletions as late events in colorectal tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 1990;50:7717-7722. Crawford LV, Pim DC, Bulbrook RD. Detection of antibodies against the cellular protein p53 in sera from patients with breast cancer. Int J Cancer 1982;30:403-408.

Montenarh M. Humoral immune response against p53 in human malignancies. In: Conrad K, Hum-bel RL, Meurer M, Shoenfeld Y, Tan, EM, editors. Pathogenic and diagnostic relevance of autoantibo-dies.Berlin:Pabst Science, 1998;377-394. Schlichtholz B, Legros Y, Gillet D, Gaillard C, Marty M, Lane D, Calvo F, Soussi T. The immune response to p53 in breast cancer patients is directed against im-

munodominant epitopes unrelated to the mutational hot spot. Cancer Res 1992;52:6380-6384.

29. Hassapoglidou S, Diamandis EP, Sutherland DJ. Quantification of p53 protein in tumor cell lines, breast tissue extracts and serum with time-resolved immunofluorometry. Oncogene 1994;8:1501— 1509.

30. Lubin R, Schlichtholz B, Teillaud JL, Garay E, Bussel A, Wild CP, Soussi T. p53 antibodies in patients with various types of cancer: assay, identification, and characterization. Clin Cancer Res 1995;1:1463-1469.

31. Bourdo JC, D'Errico A, Paterlini P, Grigioni W. May E, Debuire B. p53 protein accumulation in European hepatocellular carcinoma is not always dependent on p53 mutation. Gastroenterology 1995; 108:1176— 1182.

32. Preudhomme C, Lubin R, Lepelley P, Vanrumbeke M, Fenaux P. Detection of serum anti-p53 antibodies and their correlation with p53 mutations in myelodysplas-tic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia 1994;8:1589-1591.

33. Wild CP, Ridanpää M, Anttila S, Lubin R, Soussi T, Husgafvel-Fursiainen K, Vanino H. p53 antibodies in the sera of lung cancer patients: comparison with p53 mutations in the tumour tissue. Int J Cancer 1995;64:176-181.

34. Hammel P, Boissier B, Chaumette MT, Piedbois P, Rotman N, Kouyoumdjian JC, Lubin R, Delchier JC, Soussi T. Detection and monitoring of serum p53 antibodies in patients with colorectal cancer. Gut 1997;40:365-361.

35. Montenarh M, Harlozinska A, Bar JK, Kartarius S, Gunther J, Sedlaczek P. p53 autoantibodies in the sera, cyst and ascitic fluids of patients with ovarian cancer. IntJOncol 1998;13:605-610.

36. Davidoff AM, Iglehart JD, Marks JR. Immune response to p53 is dependent upon p53/HSP70 complexes in breast cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sei 1992;89:3439-3442.

37. Guinee Jr, DG, Travis WD, Trivers GE, De Benedetti VMG, Cawley H, Welsh JA, Benett WP, Jett J, Colby TV, Tazelaar H, Abbondanzo SL, Pairolero P, Trastek V, Caporaso NE, Liotta LA, Harris CC. Gender comparisons in human lung cancer: analysis of p53 mutations, anti-p53 serum antibodies, and C-erb B-2 expression. Carcinogenesis 1995;16:993-1002.

38. Winter SF, Minna JD, Johnson BE, Takahashi T, Gazdar AF, Carbone DP. Development of antibodies against p53 in lung cancer patients appears to be dependent on the type of p53 mutation. Cancer Res 1992;52:4168-4174.

39. Labrecque S, Naor N, Thomson D, Matlashewski G. Analysis of the anti-p53 antibody response in cancer patients. Cancer Res 1993;53:3468-3471.

40. Legros Y, Lafon C, Soussi T. Linear antigenic sites defined by the B-cell response to human p53 are localized predominantly in the amino and carboxy-termini of the protein. Oncogene 1994;9:2071-2076.

41. Lubin R, Schlichtholz B, Bengoufa D, Zalcman G, Tredaniel J, Hirsch A, Caron de Fromentel CC, Preudhomme C, Fenaux P, Fournier G, Mangin P, Laurent-PuigP, Pelletier G, Schlumberger M, Desgrandchamps

F, Le Due A, Peyrat JP, Janin N, Bressac B, Soussi T. Analysis of p53 antibodies in patients with various cancers define B-cell epitopes of human p53: distribution on primary structure and exposure on protein surface. Cancer Res 1993;53:5872-5876.

42. Brennan JA, Boyle JO, Koch WM, Goodman SN, Hruban RH, Eby YJ, Couch MJ, Forastiere AA, Sidranksi D. Association between cigarette smoking and mutation of the p53 gene in squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med 1995;332:712-717.

43. Boyle JO, Hakim J, Koch W, Van der Riet P, Hruban RH, Roa RA, Correro R, Eby YJ, Ruppert JM, Sidran-ski D. The incidence of p53 mutations increases with progression of head and neck cancer. Cancer Res 1993;53:4477-4480.

44. Ahomadegbe JC, Barrois M, Fogel S, Le Bihan ML, Douc-Rasy S, Duvillard P, Armand JP, Riou G. High incidence of p53 alterations (mutation, deletion, overexpression) in head and neck primary tumors and metastases; Absence of correlation with clinical outcome. Frequent protein over-expression in normal epithelium and in early non-invasive lesions. Oncogene 1995;10:1217-1227.

45. Bourhis J, Bosq J, Wilson GD, Bressac B, Talbot M, Leridant AM, Dendale R, Janin N, Armand JP, Luboinski B, Malaise EP, Wibault P, Eschwege F. Correlation between p53 gene expression and tumor-cell proliferation in oropharyngeal cancer. Int J Cancer 1994;57:458^162.

46. Bosari S, Viale G, Roncalli M, Graziani D, Borsani

G, Lee AKC, Coggi G. p53 mutations, p53 protein accumulation and compartimentalization in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Am J Pathol 1995;147:790-798.

47. Cripps KJ, Purdie CA, Carder PJ, White S, Komine K, Bird CC, Wyllie AH. A study of stabilization of p53 protein versus point mutation in colorectal carcinoma. Oncogene 1994;9:2739-2743.

48. Hamelin R, Laurent-Puig P, Olschwang S, Jego N, As-selain B, Remvikos Y, Girodet J, Salmon RJ, Thomas G. Association of p53 mutations with short survival in colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 1994; 106:4248.

49. Goh HS, Yao J, Smith DR. p53 point mutation and survival in colorectal cancer patients. Cancer Res 1995;55:5217-5221.

Smith DR, Ji CY, Goh HS. Prognostic significance and mutation in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Br J Cancer 1996;74:216-223.

Lubin R, Zalcman G, Bouchet L, Tredaniel J, Legros Y, Cazais D, Hirsch A, Soussi T. Serum p53 antibodies as early markers of lung cancer. Nature Med 1995;1:701-702.

Winter SF, Sekido Y, Minna JD, Mclntire D, Johnson BE, Gazdar AF Carbone DP. Antibodies against autologous tumour cell proteins in patients with small-cell lung cancer: Association with improved survival. JNCI 1993;85:2012-2018.

Peyrat JP, Bonneterre J, Lubin R, Vanlemmens L, Fournier J, Soussi T. Prognostic significance of circulating antibodies in patients undergoing surgery for lo-coregional breast cancer. The Lancet 1995;345:621-622.

Houbiers JGA, van der Burg SH, van de Watering LMG, Tollenaar RAEM, Brand A, van de Velde CJH, Melief CJM. Antibodies against p53 are associated with poor prognosis of colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer 1995;72:637-641.

Kressner U, Glimelius B, Bergström R, Pähl man L, Larsson A, Lindmark G. Increased serum p53 antibody levels indicate poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer 1998; 77:1846-1851. Angelopoulou K, Stratis M, Diamandis E. Humoral immune response against p53 protein in patients with colorectal carcinoma. Int J Cancer 1997;70:46-51. Kovacs B, Patel A, Hershey JN, Dennis GJ, Kirschfink M, Tsokos GC. Antibodies against p53 in sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic diseases. Arthritis Rheum 1997;40:980-982.

Kuhn HM, Kromminga A, Flammann HT, Frey M, Layer P, Arndt R. p53 autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases. In: Conrad K, Humbel RL, Meurer M, Shoenfeld Y, Tan, EM, editors. Pathogenic and diagnostic relevance of autoantibodies.Berlin:Pabst Science, 1998;422-423.

Chung JH, Kwon OS, Eun HC, Youn JI, Song YW, Kim JG, Cho KH. Apoptosis in the pathogenesis of cutaneous lupus erythematosus, Am J Dermatopathol 1998;20:233-241.

Angelopoulou K, Diamandis EP, Sutherland DJA, Kellen JA, Bunting PS. Prevalence of serum antibodies against the p53 tumour gene protein in variuos cancers. Int J Cancer 1994;58:480-487. Dong X, Hamilton KJ, Satoh M, Wang J, Reeves WH. Initiation of autoimmunity to the tumor suppressor protein by complexes of p53 and SV40 large T antigen. J Exp Med 1994;179:1243-1252. Yashar CM, Gercel-Taylor C, Gibb RK, Weeks JW, Taylor DD. Identification of a unique form of p53 in human cord blood associated with the development of maternal autoantibodies. Am J Reprod Immunol 1998;39:368-375.

63. Blattner WA. Human retroviruses and malignancy. In: Brugge J, Curran T, Harlow E, McCormick F, editors. Origins of human cancer: a comprehensive review. Cold Spring Harbor:Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1991; 199-209.

64. Chen YMA, Chen SH, Fu CY, Chen JY, Osame M. Antibody reactivities to tumor-suppressor protein p53 and HTLV-1 Tof, Rex and Tax in HTLV-1-infected people with differing clinical status. Int J Cancer 1997;71:196-202.

65. Ludlow JW. Interactions between SV40 large tumor antigen and the growth suppressor proteins Rb and p53. FASEB J 1993;7:866-871.

66. Moran E. Interaction of adenoviral proteins with pRb and p53. FASEB J 1993;7:880-885.

67. Reid RL, Lindholm PF, Mireskandari A, Dittmer J, Brady JN. Stabilization of wild-type p53 in human T-lymphocytes transformed by HTLV-1. Oncogene 1993;8:3029-3036.

68. Yamato K, Oka T, Hiroi M, Iwahara Y, Sug-ito S, Tsuchida N, Miyoshi I. Aberrant expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-infected cells. Jpn J Cancer Res 1993;84:4-8.

69. Raedle J, Roth WK, Oremek G, Caspary WF, Zeuzem S. Alpha-fetoprotein and p53 autoantibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Dig Dis Sci 1995;40:2587-2594.

70. Maacke H, Kessler A, Schmiegel W, Roeder C, Vogel I, Deppert W, Kalthoff H. Overexpression of p53 protein during pancreatitis. Br J Cancer 1997;75:1501-1504.

71. Gansauge S, Gansauge F, Negri G, Galle P, Miiller J, Nussler AK, Poch B, Beger HG. The role of anti-p53 autoantibodies in pancreatic disorders. Int J Pancreatol 1996;19:171-178.

72. Marxsen J, Schmiegel W, Roder C, Harder R, Juhl H, Hanne-Bruhns D, Kremer B, Kalthoff H. Detection of the anti-p53 antibody response in malignant and benign pancreatic disease. Br J Cancer 1994;70:1031— 1034.

73. Laurent-Puig P, Lubin R, Semhoun-Ducloux S, Pelletier G, Fourre C, Ducreux M, Briantais MJ, Buffet C, Soussi T. Antibodies against p53 protein in serum of patients with benign or malignant pancreatic and biliary diseases. Gut 1995;36:455^158.

74. Wurl P, Weigmann F, Meye A, Fittkau M, Rose U, Berger D, Rath FW, Dralle H, Taubert H. Detection of p53 autoantibodies in sera of gastric cancer patients and their prognostic relevance. Scand J Gastroenterol 1997;32:1147-1151.

75. Cawley HM, Meitzer S, De Benedetti, Hollstein MC, Muehlbauer KR, Liang L, Bennett WP, Souza RF, Greenwald BD, Cottrell J, Salabes A, Bartsch H, Trivers GE. Anti-p53 antibodies in patients with Barrett's esophagus or esophageal carcinoma can predate cancer diagnosis. Gastroenterology 1998; 115:1927.

76. Winawer SJ, Fletcher RH, Miller L, Godlee F, Sto-lar MH, Mulrow CD, Woolf SH, Glick SN, Ganiats TG, Bond JH, Rosen L, Zapka JG, Olsen SJ, Gia-rdiello FM, Sisk JE, Van Antwerp R, Brown-Davis C, Marciniak DA, Mayer RJ. Colorectal cancer screening: clinical guidelines and rationale. Gastroenterology 1997;112:594-642.

77. Pignatelli M, Stamp GWH, Kafiri G, Lane D, Bodmer WF. Over-expression of p53 nuclear oncoprotein in colorectal adenomas. Int J Cancer 1992;50:683-688.

78. Sinicrope FA, Ruan SB, Cleary KR, Stephens LC, Lee JJ, Levin B. bcl-2 and p53 oncoprotein expression during colorectal tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 1995;55:237-241.

79. Tominaga O, Hamelin R, Trouvat V, Salmon RJ, Lesec G, Thomas G, Remvikos Y. Frequently elevated content of immunochemically defined wildtype p53 protein in colorectal adenomas. Oncogene 1993;8:2653-2658.

80. Manning AP, Bilgim OR, Dixon MF, Axon AT. Screening by colonoscopy for colonic epithelial dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 1987;28:1489-1494.

81. Harpaz N, Peck AL, Yin J, Fiel I, Hontanosas M. p53 protein expression in ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal dysplasia and carcinoma. Hum Pathol 1994;25:1069-1074.

82. Ilyas M, Talbot IC. p53 expression in ulcerative colitis: a longitudinal study. Gut 1995;37:802-804.

83. Wollenberg B, Jan NV, Pitzke P, Reiter W, Stieber P. Anti-p53 antibodies in serum of smokers and head and neck cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1997; 17:413— 418.

84. Lang C, Unteregger G, Montenarh M, Zwergel T. p53 autoantibodies in patients with urological tumors. In: Conrad K, Humbel RL, Meurer M, Shoenfeld Y, Tan, EM, editors. Pathogenic and diagnostic relevance of autoantibodies.Berlin:Pabst Science, 1998;417.

85. Green JA, Mudenda B, Jenkins J, Leinster SJ, Tarun-ina M, Green B, Robertson L. Serum p53 autoantibodies: Incidence in familial breast cancer. Eur J Cancer [A] 1994;30A:580-584.

86. Trivers GE, De Benedetti VMG, Cawley HL, Caron G, Harrington AM, Bennett WP, Jett JR, Colby TV,

Tazelaar H, Pairolero P, Miller RD, Harris CC. Anti-p53 antibodies in sera from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can predate a diagnosis of cancer. Clin Cancer Res 1996;2:1767-1775.

87. Trivers GE, Cawley HL, De Benedetti VMG, Hollstein M, Marion MJ, Benett WP, Hoover ML, Prives CC, Tamburro CC, Harris CC. Anti-p53 antibodies in sera of workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride. JNCI 1995;87:1400-1407.

88. Zalcman G, Schlichthol B, Tredaniel J, Urban T, Lu-bin R, Dubois I, Milleron B, Hirsch A, Soussi T. Monitoring of p53 autoantibodies in lung cancer durin therapy: relationship to response to treatment. Clin Cancer Res 1998;4:1359-1366.

89. Gottschlich S, Maass JD, Hoffmann M, Hoffmann-Fazel A, Werner JA, Rudert H. p53 serum antibodies as tumor marker in head and neck cancer? In: Conrad K, Humbel RL, Meurer M, Shoenfeld Y, Tan, EM, editors. Pathogenic and diagnostic relevance of autoantibodies. Berlin:Pabst Science, 1998;419.

90. Schlichtholz B, Tredaniel J, Lubin R, Zalcman G, Hirsch A, Soussi T. Analysis of p53 autoantibodies in sera of patients with lung carcinoma define immunodominant regions in the p53 protein. Br J Cancer 1994;69:809-816.

91. Weller M, Bornemann A, Stander M, Schabet M, Dichgans J, Meyermann R. Humoral immune response in malignant glioma. J Neurol 1998;245;169-172.

92. Dix B, Robbins P, Carrello S, House A, Iacopetta B. Comparison of p53 gene mutation and protein overexpression in colorectal carcinomas. Br J Cancer 1994;70:585-590.

93. Wynford-Thomas D. p53 in tumour pathology: can we trust immunocytochemistry? J Pathol 1992;166:329-330.

94. Hall PA, Lane DP. p53 in tumour pathology: can we trust immunohistochemistry?-Revisited! J Pathol 1994; 172:1—4.

95. Battifora H. p53 Immunohistochemistry: a word of caution. Human Pathol 1994; 25:435^136.

96. Bosari S, Viale G. The clinical significance of p53 aberrations in human tumours. Virchows Arch 1995;427:229-241.

97. Flammann HT, Kuhn HM, Weinland G, Fibbe C, Arndt R, Frenzel H, Layer P. Postoperative p53 autoantibodies in patients with gastric or colon carcinoma seronegative at the time of tumor resection. In: Conrad K, Humbel RL, Meurer M, Shoenfeld Y, Tan, EM, editors. Pathogenic and diagnostic relevance of autoantibodies. Berlin:Pabst Science, 1998;420^121.

© 2000 Elsevier Science B. V. All rights reserved. Cancer and Autoimmunity Y. Shoenfeld and M. E. Gershwin, editors

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment