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a Alum = aluminum potassium hydroxide. b (n) number of patients. 0 PD = progressive disease. d SD = stable disease.

a Alum = aluminum potassium hydroxide. b (n) number of patients. 0 PD = progressive disease. d SD = stable disease.

3. CLINICAL TRIALS WITH ANTI-ID ANTIBODIES IN COLORECTAL CARCINOMA, IN MELANOMA AND IN OVARIAN CARCINOMA

Anti-id antibodies which mimic colorectal carcinoma associated antigens, melanoma associated antigens and ovarian carcinoma associated antigens have been tested in clinical trials. The available information which is summarized in Tables 1-6 contributes to evaluate the usefulness of anti-id antibodies as immunogens to implement active specific immunotherapy in patients with malignant diseases. Before listing the most important conclusions derived from the clinical trials described thus far, we would like to stress that caution has to be exercised in interpreting the results obtained thus far, since most of the anti-id antibodies have been tested only in one center in a limited number of patients. The only exceptions are represented by anti-id mAb which mimic antigenic determinants of the human high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA) and GD3 ganglioside. The anti-id mAb MF11-30, which had been elicited with the anti-HMW-MAA mAb 225.28, and its subclone Mel-1 have been tested in two groups of patients with melanoma by Mittelman et al. [69] and by Pride et al. [72]. The latter investigators have also tested the anti-id mAb Mel-2 which has also been used by Quan et al. [71] to implement active specific immunotherapy in patients with melanoma. The anti-id mAb Mel-2 had been elicited with the anti-HMW-MAA mAb MEM-136, which recognizes a distinct and spatially distant determinant from that defined by mAb 225.28. Furthermore, the anti-id mAb BEC2, which had been elicited with the anti-GD3 ganglioside mAb R24 [78] is being tested in a multicentric clinical trial in patients with lung carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only clinical trial to be conducted in a double blind fashion. The results of this trial are expected to provide conclusive evidence about the value

Table 3. Immunological and clinical responses in patients with colorectal carcinoma immunized with anti-id mAb mimicking the gp72 antigen

Anti-TAA mAb

Anti-id mAb

Carrier and adjuvant

Patients #

Immune response

Clinical response

References

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