Artifacts in PA or AP Spine Densitometry

Osteoporosis Lumbar Spine

The PA lumbar spine has been, and continues to be, used extensively in densitometry for diagnosis, fracture prediction, and monitoring. Unfortunately, it is also the skeletal site most often affected by structural changes and artifacts that may limit its utility. The BMD of a fractured vertebra will be increased because of the fracture itself. This increase in density could erroneously lead the physician to conclude that the bone strength is better and the risk for fracture, lower, than is the...

Image Analysis Inc Columbia

Analyze Hip Dxa Delphi Qdr

An early Lunar DP3 dual-photon absorptiometer. This device utilized 153Gd to generate photon energy. Photo courtesy of GE Medical Systems, Madison, WI. Fig. 1-8. An early Lunar DP3 dual-photon absorptiometer. This device utilized 153Gd to generate photon energy. Photo courtesy of GE Medical Systems, Madison, WI. DPA studies of the spine required approximately 30 minutes to complete. Studies of the proximal femur took 30 to 45 minutes to perform. Total body bone density studies with...

The Spine in the Lateral Projection

Dxa Lumbar Spine

The effect on BMD measured in the AP or PA projection from aortic calcification, facet sclerosis, osteophytes, and other degenerative changes in the spine can be nullified by quantifying the bone density of the spine in the lateral projection as shown in Fig. 2-15B. In addition, the highly cortical posterior elements and a portion of the cortical shell of the vertebral body can be eliminated from the measurement, resulting in a more trabecular measure of bone density in the spine. The...

Standard Scores on Bone Density Reports

Bone Density Score

T-scores and z-scores are found on the computer-generated bone densitometry printouts from virtually every manufacturer of bone density equipment. Figure 3-2 is the printout from a spine bone density study performed on an older Lunar DPX device. The individual BMD values for each vertebra are listed as well as the BMD values for each possible combination of contiguous vertebrae. The two columns adjacent to the BMD values reflect z-scores. One column is entitled young-adult z and the other,...

ACOG Recommendations for Bone Density Screening for Osteoporosis

In a press release (13) on February 28, 2002, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) announced long-awaited recommendations for the use of bone densitometry. ACOG, like the NOF and AACE, recommended that all postmenopausal women 65 years of age and older be screened for osteoporosis. Similarly, they 2 See Chapter 11 for a discussion of the relationship between precision and rate of change in determining the interval between measurements. ACOG 2001 Recommendations for...

The metacarpals phalanges and calcaneus

Metacarpals Atlas

Other skeletal sites can be studied using the techniques available today. The metacarpals, phalanges, and calcaneus were among the very first sites studied with the older techniques of radiographic photodensitometry and radiogrammetry. These sites are increasingly utilized today with the advent of computerized radiographic absorptiometry, computerized radiogrammetry, and DXA and ultrasound units. Figure 2-31 illustrates the anatomy of the hand and the location of the metacarpals and phalanges....

The precision calculator companion

There is only one Microsoft Excel workbook file in this folder. There are 2 spreadsheets within the workbook. The first spreadsheet is the Precision Calculator Companion. Instructions are given on the spreadsheet. This spreadsheet will allow you to calculate precision as the RMS-SD and RMS- CV for a group of 15 patients studied 3 times each. The spreadsheet will also calculate the 1x1LSC95 for this level of precision. The second spreadsheet is the Statistical Confidence Calculator. The...

Sahara Clinical Bone Sonometer

Sahara Clinical Bone Sonometer

Manufacturer Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA Skeletal application s Calcaneus Scan time Less than 10 seconds BMD 3 or 0.014 g cm2 QUI 2.6 or 2.2 Dimensions 17 x 14 x 12 in 43 x 36 x 30 cm Environmental operating temperature 60 to 100 F 15 to 37.7 C Environmental operating relative humidity 20 to 80 noncondensing Quality control Daily, with supplied quality control phantom Operation Embedded microprocessor. Data and command input from touch pad on unit. Built-in strip printer. Quality control phantom...