Cholecystokinin (CCK) is both a hormone released from duodenal endocrine cells and an enteric neurotransmitter. CCK excites vagal afferents (26), which express predominantly CCK1 receptors (27-30). These receptors may be relevant targets for the treatment of functional dyspepsia, since the CCK receptor antagonist dexloxiglumide attenuates the meal-like fullness and nausea associated with intraduodenal lipid administration during gastric distension of normal volunteers and dyspeptic patients (31). Since in IBS patients CCK causes exaggerated intestinal motor responses and abdominal pain (32,33) and intestinal infection and inflammation causes upregulation of the CCK system (34,35), it is thought that CCK1 receptor antagonists may also be beneficial in IBS (36).
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