B

Biofeedback, in brachial plexus injuries, 106-107

Bipolar electrical stimulator, handheld, 41

Brachial neuritis, 33

Brachial plexus, anatomy of, 16, 25

direct repair of, by grafts with nerve transfers, 55-69

in lacerations, 56-57, 63-65 in open injuries, 62-63 methods for, 55-56 numbers of, 55, 56 results of, 56-62 general overview of, 1-4 imaging modalities for, 25 imaging of, 25-37 infraclavicular, approach to, 8-9 injury(ies) of, biofeedback in, 106-107 classification of, 13-14, 47 common interventions for, 103 direct-current stimulation unit for, 103-104, 105

direct repair supplemented by transfers, 66 direct ventral intraspinal implantation in, aims of, 111

corpectomies for, 113-115 in avulsed ventral nerve roots, 109-118 neurotropic factors and, 115-116 prior research in, 110-111 site for, 112-113 elbow flexion and, 65 electrical stimulation in, 105 electrodiagnostic studies in, 21-23 electrophysiologic assessment of, preoperative and intraoperative, 39-46 functioning free-muscle transfer for, 91-102 grading of, by elements, 56

gravity-eliminated exercise in, 106-107 gunshot wound, surgical outcome in, 57-58, 65

in adult, 13-24

nerve transfers in, 71-82, 83-89

materials and methods for, 72-73 pre-/postoperative therapy for, 103-108 incidence and cause of, 13 infraclavicular, 47-48

infraclavicular stretch, surgical outcome in, 67

integrity of nerve root and, 44-45 intraoperative electrodiagnosis of, 41-46 mechanism and pathoanatomy of, 14-18, 19, 20

muscle strengthening in, 107 pain management in, 107 patterns of, 17-18 physical examination in, 18-21 preoperative electrodiagnosis of, 39-41 PROM exercises in, 104, 105 radiographic evaluation in, 21 re-education of muscle in, 105-106 sensory re-education in, 107 shoulder abduction and, 65 stretch/contusion, 58-62, 65 supraclavicular, 47 universal sling for, 103, 104 lacerations of, surgical outcomes in, 57 lesions of, partial and complete, assessment of, 45-46

nontraumatic plexopathy of, 29-35 causes of, 33-35

in breast and lung cancer as cause of, 33-34 in inflammatory brachial plexopathy, 33 in neurogenic tumors, 35 nonmyelographic MRI in, 29-33 overview of, 29

radiation fibrosis as cause of, 33 operative approaches to, 6-10 pathoanatomy of, 4-5 posterior approach to, for repair of avulsed spinal nerve roots, 111-112 posterior subscapular approach to, 9

Brachial (continued)

postganglionic injuries in, anatomic considerations in, 5 preganglionic injuries in, anatomic considerations in, 5 retroclavicular, approach to, 8 roots of, anatomy of, and types of injury, 15

avulsions of, 15-17 supraclavicular, approach to, 6-8 surgery of, electrodiagnostic studies for, 49 electrophysiologic studies during, 44 imaging studies for, 49-50 logistics and prioritization for, 50 patient expectations for, 52 physical examination for, 49 planning of, 47-54 preoperative planning for, 49-52 surgical options for, 50-52 timing of, 48-49 surgical anatomy and exposures of, 1-11 traumatic plexopathy of, 25-29 CT myelography in, 26-28, 29 MRI myelography in, 28-29, 30 overview of, 25-26 plain-film myelography in, 26 variations of, 2-4

Breast, cancer of, plexopathy of brachial plexus in, 33-34

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