References

Chaudhuri S, Cariappa A, Tang M, et al. Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer HLA DQB*03032 and HLA DRB1*11 may represent protective alleles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000 97 11451-11454. 2. Marincola FM, Jaffee EM, Hicklin DJ, et al. Escape of human solid tumors from T-cell recognition molecular mechanisms and functional significance. Adv Immunol 2000 74 181-273. 3. Campoli M, Chang CC, Oldford SA, et al. HLA antigen changes in malignant tumors of mammary epithelial origin molecular mechanisms...

Fin Her Trial

The FinHer trial was published in 2006. This multicenter randomized trial investigated the safety and efficacy of trastuzumab given for only nine weeks concomi-tantly with chemotherapy in early breast cancer. A total of 1010 women from 17 centers with axillary node positive breast cancer or tumor more than 2.0 cm that was progesterone receptor negative were accrued for a median follow-up of 38 months. Women were randomly assigned to receive either 3 three-weekly cycles of docetaxel (100 mg m2)...

Biology Of Hematogenous Tumor Cell Dissemination

Tumor cells evaded or shed to the blood circulation may be detectable in peripheral venous blood and, in principle, all body organs, as shown in few elegant experiments during the 1960s and 1970s (1,2). When specific monoclonal antibodies became broadly available in the 1980s, the interest in the identification of spread tumor cells was renewed. The first study groups (3-8), however, did not investigate peripheral blood, presumably because from pathophysiological considerations, the presence of...

Metronomic Chemotherapy

Agents directed at VEGF may not be the only effective means of addressing neoplastic angiogenesis. In fact, many commonly employed cytotoxic agents appear to possess antiangiogenic capabilities both in vitro and in vivo (56,57). On the basis of several preclinical studies, the notion of metronomic chemotherapy as an antiangiogenic strategy was proposed (58), and the idea has received renewed interest in light of the success of other angiogenesis inhibitors in the treatment of cancer....

Genetic And Environmental Associations With Breast Cancer Subtypes

Much work has gone into identifying genetic and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. Based on the recognition that breast cancer is more than one disease, it is possible that different risk factors may contribute to the development of different types of breast cancer. One of the clearest examples of this phenomenon is the predisposition for basal-like breast cancers among carriers of BRCA1 genetic mutations. Patients with BRCA1 mutations are at high (up to 80 ) lifetime risk for...

Contributors

Altman Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, U.K. Karen S. Anderson Cancer Vaccine Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Doris Auer Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria Lodovico Balducci Senior Adult Oncology Program, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, U.S.A. Mansoina Baweja Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A....

Use Of Microarrays To Identify Breast Cancer Subtypes

Each mammalian somatic cell contains a full complement of DNA of the parent organism. Differentiation into specific tissues and cell types requires the variable expression of more than 25,000 genes contained in each cell. Using microarray technology, the relative level of expression of each gene can be determined for an individual tissue or cell type. A gene expression microarray consists of nucleic acid sequences representing known genes fixed as either cDNA or oligonucleotide probes to a...

The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Applied To Breast Cancer

Heisenberg postulated that the position and momentum of a particle could not be simultaneously known. His principle led to clearer understanding of the uncertainty inherent in scientific measurement. A similar paradox exists in assessing lymph node metastases with respect to knowing where they are but not knowing where they may have been going. Even if we could assess the biological potential of a single cell, cell cluster, or micrometastasis in a sentinel node, the node has already been...