Classification of Nipple Function

Protraction Nipple moves forward; considered a normal functional response. No special interventions are needed.

Retraction Instead of protracting, the nipple moves inward. Minimal An infant with a strong suck exerts sufficient pressure to pull the nipple forward. A weak or premature infant may have difficulties at first. Moderate to Nipple retracts to a level even with or severe behind the surrounding areola. Inter vention is helpful to stretch the nipple outward and improve protractility.

Inversion On visual inspection, all or part of the nipple is drawn inward within the folds of the areola. Simple The nipple moves outward to protrac tion with manual pressure or when cold (pseudoinversion).

Complete The nipple does not respond to manual pressure because adhesions bind the nipple inward; very rarely there is congenital absence of the nipple.

may inhibit her milk supply, she may take action to reduce stressful situations over which she has control. If a woman understands that the reason she needs less covering when she breastfeeds is that she literally has "hot flashes" during feedings, she will take measures to "keep cool." Examples of the application of basic biologic principles of maternal lactation are legion and form the basis of many of the chapters that follow.

New Mothers Guide to Breast Feeding

New Mothers Guide to Breast Feeding

For many years, scientists have been playing out the ingredients that make breast milk the perfect food for babies. They've discovered to day over 200 close compounds to fight infection, help the immune system mature, aid in digestion, and support brain growth - nature made properties that science simply cannot copy. The important long term benefits of breast feeding include reduced risk of asthma, allergies, obesity, and some forms of childhood cancer. The more that scientists continue to learn, the better breast milk looks.

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