Genetic Risk Profiles for Cancer Susceptibility and Therapy Response

Helmut Bartsch, Heike Dally, Odilia Popanda, Angela Risch, Peter Schmezer Recent Results in Cancer Research, Vol. 174 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007 Cells in the body are permanently attacked by DNA-reactive species, both from intracellular and environmental sources. Inherited and acquired deficiencies in host defense mechanisms against DNA damage (metabolic and DNA repair enzymes) can modify cancer susceptibility as well as therapy response. Genetic profiles should help to identify...

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Day is associated with lower prostate cancer risk (Miller et al. 2002). Vitamin D, an essential nutrient produced in the skin as a product of sun exposure and through consumption of foods such as dairy products and seafood, and vitamin D homologues have been investigated for their chemopreventive properties related to colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers. The active form of vitamin D - 1,25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol (1,25(OH D) - binds intracellu-larly to cytoplasmic vitamin D receptor (VDR),...

The Role of Breast Architecture and the Pathogenesis of Breast Cancer

An important concept that emerged from the study of breast development is that the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU), which had been identified as the site of origin of the most common breast malignancy, the ductal carcinoma (J. Russo et al. 1990 J. Russo and I.H. Russo 2004 Wellings et al. 1975), corresponds to a specific stage of development of the mammary parenchyma, the Lob 1. This observation is supported by comparative studies of normal and cancer-bearing breasts obtained at autopsy. It...

Physiological Basis of Breast Cancer Prevention

The above-described epidemiological observations indicating that pregnancy significantly reduces the lifetime risk of developing breast cancer provide a window of opportunity for learning how and why this physiological condition exerts such a protective effect. Due to the complexity of the carcinogenic process, this event does not explain all the aspects of this complex disease nevertheless, data obtained in experimental models have served as a blue print for developing a new paradigm in breast...

Prevention of Ovarian Cancer

In carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy will reduce the risk of ovarian cancer by approximately 95 , although primary peritoneal cancers that resemble ovarian cancers histologically can still occur in up to 5 of women even after prophylactic surgery. In specimens obtained at prophylactic oophorectomy, occult cancers have been found in 6 of ovaries from BRCA1 carriers and in 2 of ovaries from BRCA2 carriers (Finch et al. 2006). Small occult cancers...

Genomic Signature Induced by hCG and Pregnancy

RNA was obtained from mammary glands of rats in their 15th and 21st day of pregnancy or hCG treatment, and 21 and 42 days postpar-tum or post-treatment, respectively. RNAs were analyzed utilizing two membranes for each animal and compared with mRNA of age-matched virgin control rats. RNAs were hybridized to cDNA array membranes that contained 5,800 rat genes Research Genetics, Huntsville, AL . Cluster analysis was performed using the Jaidexp Java Analysis information amp Data Exploration...

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Follow-up Prostate cancer, other cancer, death Fig. 2 Diagram of the schema for the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial SELECT Klein et al. 2001 Fig. 2 Diagram of the schema for the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial SELECT Klein et al. 2001 significant future role in reducing the incidence and mortality from this disease. BFCs, natural or synthetic, have been studied in basic research that includes animal models. While it is true that much of the basic and animal...

Abstract

Early pregnancy imprints in the breast permanent genomic changes or a signature that reduces the susceptibility of this organ to cancer. The breast attains its maximum development during pregnancy and lactation. After menopause, the breast regresses in both nulliparous and parous women containing lobular structures designated Lob.1. The Lob 1 found in the breast of nullipa-rous women and of parous women with breast cancer never went through the process of differentiation, retaining a high...

Redox Status of Melanocytes and Melanoma Cells

We initially asked a simple question How do melanocytes respond to oxidative stress Meyskens et al. 1997 . The conclusions from our studies are summarized as follows, and illustrated in Fig. 1. Melanoma were exposed to a low dose of H2O2 generated by adding titered amounts of glucose oxidase to the medium, and with a fixed dose of glucose, a predictable amount of H2O2 was generated. Using UVR-B as the source of ROS was too complex as it produces many cellular effects including direct DNA...

References

Bosch FX, de Sanjose S 2003 Chapter 1 HPVs and cervical cancer burden and assessment of casual-ity. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 3-13 Breitburd F, Kirnbauer R, Hubbert NL et al 1995 Immunization with virus-like particles from cottontail rabbit papillomavirus CRPV can protect against experimental CRPV infection. J Virol 69 3959-3396 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2004 Genital HPV infection CDC Fact Sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta Dubin G 2005 Enhanced...

HPV 1618 vaccine could prevent 70 of cervical cancers

Munoz N, Bosch FX, de Saniose S et al. International Agency for Research on Cancer Multlcenter Cervical Study Group. N Engl J Med2003 348 518-27. membrane, differentiate, and become epithelial cells. Virus replication and assembly is tightly linked to the differentiation program of epithelial cells. Infectious virions are produced only in the terminally differentiated cell and are shed as virus-laden squamous cells. The HPV genome codes for eight proteins open reading frames . The late L1 and...

IL6 Transsignaling and Inflammation

Many investigations have shown that IL-6 plays an important role in the transition from innate immunity to acquired immunity, a crucial event in the controlling of any inflammatory states Hurst et al. 2001 Jones 2005 Jones et al. 2005 . Disruption of this essential switch leads to an inappropriate immune response and might cause the onset of autoimmune or chronic inflammatory disorders Hoebe et al. 2004 . The disco very of the IL-6 trans-signaling mechanism may help to understand the...