Epidemiologic Risk Factors

In addition to age over 50 and Caucasian race, an increased number of ovulatory cycles appears to increase risk for ovarian cancer, reflected in an association with early menarche, late menopause, and nulliparity (Berek and Bast 2006). Conversely, factors that decrease the number of ovulatory cycles, including repeated pregnancies, prolonged breast feeding and use of oral contraceptives, decrease the risk of ovarian cancer. A protective effect from tubal ligation suggests that exogenous carcinogens might gain access to the ovary from the uterus through the fallopian tube. However, evidence for viral or strong chemical carcinogens has not been obtained, with the possible exceptions of the use of talc products in all histotypes and of cigarette smoking in mucinous cancers, but not in the more common serous histotype (Berek and Bast 2006). Approximately 10% of ovarian cancers are familial and are associated with mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 or, less frequently, with the mismatch repair enzymes in the human nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) syndrome (Berek and Bast 2006).

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment