Gross, H., Egbert, M. H., Faden, V. B., Goldberg, S. C., Kaye, W. H., Caine, E. D. et al. (1983) "A double-blind trial of delta-9-THC in primary anorexia nervosa," Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 3: 165-171.
Handscombe, M. (1993) "Cannabis: why doctors want it to be legal," The Independent, 23rd February.
Herman, T. S., Einhorn, L. H., Jones, S. E., Nagy, C., Chester, A. B., Dean, J. C. et al. (1979) "Superiority of nabilone over prochlorperazine as an antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy," New England Journal of Medicine 300: 1295-1297.
Hodges, C. (1992) Very alternative medicine. The Spectator, 1st August.
Hodges, C. (1993) I wish I could get it at the chemist's. The Independent, 23rd February.
Houser, S. J., Eads, M., Embrey, J. P. and Welch, S. P. (2000) "Dynorphin B and spinal analgesia: induction of antinociception by the cannabinoids CP55,940, Delta(9)-THC and anandamide," Brain Research 857: 337-342.
Huggett (2001) "Pharmos starts phase III study of dexanabind in brain injury," Bioworld Today 12.
Jain, A. K., Ryan, J. R., McMahon, F. G. and Smith, G. (1981) "Evaluation of intramuscular levonantradol and placebo in acute postoperative pain," Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 21: 320S-326S.
James, T. (1993) "Breaking the law to beat MS," The Yorkshire Post, 27th September.
Johansson, R., Kikku, P. and Groenroos, M. (1982) "A double-blind, controlled trial of nabilone vs prochlorperazine for refractory emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy," Cancer Treatment Reviews 9 (Supplement B): 25-33.
Johnson, M. R. and Melvin, L. S. (1986) "The discovery of nonclassical cannabinoid analgetics," in Cannabinoids as Therapeutic Agents, edited by R. Mechoulam, pp. 121-145. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Jones, S. E., Durant, J. R., Greco, F. A., and Robertone, A. (1982) "A multi-institutional phase III study of nabilone vs placebo in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting," Cancer Treatment Review 9: 45s-48s.
Karniol, I. G. and Carlini, E. A. (1973) "Pharmacological interaction between cannabidiol and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol," Psychopharmacologia 33: 53-70.
Karniol, I. G., Shirakawa, I., Kasinski, N. et al. (1974) "Cannabidiol interfers with the effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in man," European Journal of Pharmacology 28: 172-177.
Keeler, M. H. and Reifler, C. B. (1967) "Grand mal convulsions subsequent to marihuana use," Diseases of the Nervous System 18: 474-475.
Ko, M. C. and Woods, J. H. (1999) "Local administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol attenuates capsaicin-induced thermal nociception in rhesus monkeys: A peripheral cannabinoid action," Psychopharmacology (Berliner) 143(3): 322-326.
Kotin, J., Post, R. M. and Goodwin, F. K. (1973) "Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in depressed patients," Archives of General Psychiatry 3: 345-348.
Lane, M., Vogel, C. L. and Ferguson, J. (1991) "Dronabinol and prochlorperazine in combination are better than either agent alone for treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting," Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncologists 8: 326.
Leite, J. R., Carlini, E. A., Lander, N. and Mechoulam, R. (1982) "Anti-convulsant effects of the (-) and + isomers of cannabdiol and their dimethylheptyl homologs," Pharmacology 24: 141-146.
Leker, R. R., Shohami, E., Abramsky, O. and Ovadia, H. (1999) "Dexanabinol; a novel neuroprotective drug in experimental focal cerebral ischemia," Journal of Neurology and Sciences 162: 114-119.
Levitt, M. (1982) "Nabilone vs placebo in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patients," Cancer Treatment Reviews 9 (Supplement B): 49-53.
Lindstrom, P., Lindblom, U. and Boreus, L. (1987) "Lack of effect of cannabidiol in sustained neuropathia," Paper presented at Marijuana '87 International Conference on Cannabis, Melbourne, September 2 to 4: 1987 (cited by Consroe & Sandyk, 1992).
Lucas, V. S. Jr. and Lazlo, J. (1980) "9-THC for refractory vomiting induced by cancer chemotherapy," Journal of the American Medical Association 243: 1241-1243.
Lyman, W. D. (1991) "Drugs of abuse and experimental autoimmune diseases," in Drugs of Abuse, Immunity and Immunodeficiency, edited by H. Friedman, S. Specter, and T. W. Klein, pp. 81-92. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Malec, J., Harvey, R. F. and Cayner, J. J. (1982) "Cannabis effect on spasticity in spinal cord injury," Archives of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation 63: 116-118.
Martyn, C. N., Illis, L. S. and Thom, J. (1995) "Nabilone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis," Lancet 345: 579.
Martin, W. J., Loo, C. M. and Basbaum, A. I. (1999) "Spinal cannabinoids are anti-allodynic in rats with persistent inflammation," Pain 82: 199-205.
Mattes, R. D., Engelman, K., Shaw, L. M. and Elsohly, M. A. (1994) "Cannabinoids and appetite stimulation," Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 49: 187-195.
Maurer, M., Henn, V., Dittrich, A. and Hoffmann, A. (1990) "Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial," European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 240: 1-4.
McLaughlin, C. L., Baile, C. A. and Bender, P. E. (1979) "Cannabinols and feeding in sheep," Psychopharmacology (Berliner), 64(3): 321-323.
Meinck, H. M., Schonle, P. W. and Conrad, B. (1989) "Effects of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis," Journal of Neurology 236: 120-122.
Mikuriya, T. H. (1999) "Clinical Report: Medical Uses of Cannabis in California," 1999 Symposium on the Cannabinoids, Burlington, VT, International Cannabinoid Research Society 89.
Musty, R. E. (1984) "Possible anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol," in The Cannabinoids, edited by S. Agurell, W. Dewey and R.Willette, pp. 829-844. New York: Academic Press.
Musty, R. E. (1988) "Individual differences as predictors of marihuana phenomenology," in Marihuana: An International Research Report, edited by G. Chesher, P. Consroe, and R. E. Musty, pp. 201-207. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Musty, R. E. (moderator), MacDonald, (Mac) J., Christie, N. E., Buckley, S. I., Tod, M., Roger, G. et al. (1998) "Medical uses of marijuana: a debate," in HMS Beagle: The BioMedNet Magazine (http://hmsbeagle.com/1997/01/cutedge/overview.htm), May 15, Issue 30.
Musty, R. E., Conti, L. H. and Mechoulam, R. (1985) "Anxiolytic properties of cannabidiol," In Marihuana 84: edited by D. Harvey, pp. 713-719.
Musty, R. E., Deyo, R. A., Baer, J. L., Darrow, S. M. and Coleman, B. (2000) "Effects of SR141716 on animal models of schizophrenia," Symposium on the Cannabinoids, Burlington, VT: International Cannabinoid Research Society (in press).
Nadler, V., Mechoulam, R. and Sokolovsky, M. (1993) "The non-psychotropic cannabinoid (+)-(3S,4S)- 7-hydroxy-delta 6-tetrahydrocannabinol 1,1-dimethylheptyl (HU-211) attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated neurotoxicity in primary cultures of rat forebrain," Neuroscience Letters 162: 43-45.
Nagy, C. M., Furnas, B. E., Einhorn, L. H. and Bond, W. H. (1978) "Nabilone: antiemetic crossover study in cancer chemotherapy patients," Proceedings of the American Society for Cancer research 19: 30.
Negrete, J. C., Knapp, W. P., Douglas, D. E. and Smith, W. B. (1986) "Cannabis affects the severity of schizophrenic symptoms: results of a clinical survey," Psychological Medicine, 16(3): 515-520.
Nelson, K., Walsh, D., Deeter, P. and Sheehan, F. (1994) "A phase II study of delta-9-tetrahy-drocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia," Journal of Palliative Care 10: 14-18.
Niederle, N., Schutte, J. and Schmidt, C. G. (1986) "Cross over comparison of the antiemetic efficacy of nabilone an alizapride in patients with nonseminomatous testicular cancer receiving cisplatin therapy," Klinische Wochenschrigt 64: 362-365.
Niedhart, J., Gagen, M., Wilson, H., and Young, D. (1981) "Comparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol," Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 21: 38s.
Niiranen, A. and Mattson, K. (1985) "A cross comparison of nabilone and prochlorperazine for emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy," American Journal of Clinical Oncology 8: 336-340.
Noyes, R., Brunk, S. F., Baram, D. A. and Baram, A. (1975a) "Analgesic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol," Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 15: 139-143.
Noyes, R., Brunk, S. F., Baram, D. A. and Canter, A. (1975b) "The analgesic properties of delta-9-THC and codeine," Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 18: 84-89.
Onaivi, E. S., Babatunde, E. A. and Chakrabarti, A. (1998) "Cannabinoid (CB:) receptor antaginism induces anxiolysis," 1998 Symposium on the Cannabinoids, Burlington, VT: International Cannabinoid Research Society, 58.
Orr, L. E. and McKernan, J. F. (1981) "Antiemetic effect of delta-9-THC in chemotherapy-associated nausea and emiesis as compared to placebo and compazine," Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 21: 76-80.
Peralta, V. and Cuesta, M. J. (1992) "Influence of cannabis abuse on schizophrenic psycho-pathology," Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 85(2): 127-130.
Pertwee, R. G. (1987) "The central neuropharmacology of psychotropic cannabinoids," Pharmacology Therapeutics 36: 189-261.
Pertwee, R. G. (1997) "Pharmacology of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors," Pharmacology Therapeutics 74: 129-180.
Petitet, F., Jeantaud, B., Reibaud, M., Imperato, A. and Dubroeucq, M. C. (1998) "Complex pharmacology of natural cannabinoids: evidence for partial agonist activity of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and antagonist activity of cannabidiol on rat brain cannabinoid receptors," Life Science 63(1): PL1-6.
Petro, D. J. (1980) "Marijuana as a therapeutic agent for mucsle spasm or spasticity," Psycho-somatics 21: 81-85.
Petro, D. J. and Ellenberger, C. (1981) "Treatment of human spasticity with A9-tetrahydro-cannabinol," Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 21: 413S-416S.
Plasse, T. F., Gorter, R. W., Krasnow, S. H., Lane, M., Shepard, K. V. and Wadleigh, R. G. (1991) "Recent clinical experience with dronabinol," Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior 40:695-700.
Pomeroy, M., Fennelly, J. J. and Towers, M. (1986) "Prospective randomized double-blind trial of nabilone versus domperidone in the treatment of cytotoxic-induced emesis," Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 17: 285-288.
Raft, D., Gregg, J., Ghia, J. and Harris, L. (1977) "Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain," Psychological correlates of the analgesic response. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 21: 26-33.
Regelson, W., Butler, J. R., Schultz, J., Kirk, T., Peek, L., Green, M. L. and Zakis, O. (1976) "A9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an effective antidepressant and appetite stimulating agent in advanced cancer patients," in Pharmacology of Marijuana, edited by M. C. Braude and S. Szara, pp. 763-776, New York: Raven Press.
Richter, A. and Loscher, W. (1994) "(+)-WIN 55, 212-2, a novel cannabinoid receptor agonist, exerts antidystonic effects in mutant dystonic hamsters," European Journal Pharmacology 264: 371-377.
Sallan, S., Zinberg, N. and Frei, E. III. (1975) "Antiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy," New England Journal of Medicine 293: 795-797.
Sandyk, R. and Awerbuch, G. (1988) "Marijuana and Tourette's syndrome," Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 8: 444.
Schnelle, M., Grotenhermen, F., Reif, M. and Gorter, R. W. (1999) "Ergebnisse einer standardisierten Umfrage zur medizinischen Verwendung von Cannabisprodukten im deutschen Sprachraum, [Results of a standardized survey on the medical use of cannabis products in the German-speaking area]," Forschende Komplementarmedizin und Klassische Naturheikunde 3: 28-36.
Shohami, E., Novikov, M. and Mechoulam, R. (1993) "A nonpsychotropic cannabinoid, HU-211, has cerebroprotective effects after closed head injury in the rat," Journal of Neurotrauma 10: 109-119.
Shohami, E., Beit-Yannai, E., Horowitz, M. and Kohen, R. (1997) "Oxidative stress in closed-head injury: brain antioxidant capacity as an indicator of functional outcome," Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabiolism 10: 1007-1019.
Segal, M. (1986) "Cannabinoids and analgesia," in Cannabinoids as Therapeutic Agents, edited by R. Mechoulam, pp. 106-120. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc.
Sofia, R .D., Vassar, H. B. and Knobloch, L. C. (1975) "Comparative analgesic activity of various naturally occurring cannabinoids in mice and rats," Psychopharmacologia 40(4): 285-295.
Striem, S., Bar-Joseph, A., Berkovitch, Y. and Biegon, A. (1997) "Interaction of dexanabinol (HU-211), a novel NMDA receptor antagonist, with the dopaminergic system," European Journal of Pharmacology 338: 205-213.
Trembley, B. and Sherman, M. (1990) "Double-blind clinical study of cannabidiol as a secondary anticonvulsant," Paper presented at Marijuana '90 International Conference on Cannabis and Cannabiniods, Kolympari (Crete), July 8 to 11 (cited by Consroe & Sandyk, 1992).
Ungerleider, J. T., Andrysiak, T., Fairbanks, L., Goonight, J., Sarna, G., and Jamison, K. (1982) "Cannabis and cancer chemotherapy. A comparison of oral delta-9-THC and prochlorperazine," Cancer 50: 636-645.
Ungerleider, J. T., Andrysiak, T., Fairbanks, L., Ellison, G. W. and Myers, L. W. (1988) "Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis," Advances in Alcoholism and Substance Abuse 7: 39-50.
Wada, J. K., Bogdon, D. L., Gunnell, J. C., Hum, G. J., Gota, C. H. and Rieth, T. E. (1982) "Double-blind, randomized, crossover trial of nabilone vs placebo in cancer chemotherapy," Cancer Treatment Review 9 (Supplement B): 39-44.
Walker, J. M., Huang, S. M., Strangman, N. M., Tsou, K. and Sanudo-Pena, M. C. (1999) Pain modulation by release of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 96 12198-12203.
Warner, R., Taylor, D., Wright, J., Sloat, A., Springett, G., Arnold, S. et al. (1994) "Substance use among the mentally ill: prevalence, reasons for use, and effects on illness," American Jounal of Orthopsychiatry 64(1): 30-39.
Watson, S. J., Benson, J. A. and Joy, J. E. (2000) "Marijuana and medicine: assessing the science base - a summary of the 1999 Institute of Medicine Report," Archieves of General Psychiatry 57: 5786-5790.
Welch, S. P. and Stevens, D. L. (1992) "Antinociceptive activity of intrathecally administered cannabinoids alone, and in combination with morphine, in mice," Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 262: 10-18.
Willette, R. (1984) The Cannabinoids, pp. 829-844. New York: Academic Press.
Wilson, R. S. and May, E. L. (1975) "9-nor-A8-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid of metabolic interest," Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 17: 475-476.
Wilson, R. S., May, E. L., Martin, B. R. and Dewey, W. L. (1976) "Analgesic properties of the tetrahydocannabinols. Synthesis, some behavioral and analgesic comparisons with the tetrahyrocannabinols," Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 19: 1165.
Wood, H.C., Remington, J. P. and Satdler, S. P. (1892) The dispensatory of the United States of America, pp. 348-351. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Zuardi, A. W., Shirakawa, I., Finkelfarb, E. and Karniol, I. G. (1982) "Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by delta 9-THC in normal subjects," Psychophar-macology (Berliner) 76(3): 245-250.
Zuardi, A. W., Rodrigues, J. A. and Cunha, J. M. (1991) "Effects of cannabidiol in animal models predictive of antipsychotic activity," Psychopharmacology 104: 260-264.
Zuardi, A. W., Cosme, R. A., Graeff, F. G. and Guimaraes, F. S. (1993) "Effects of ipsapirone and cannabidiol on human experimental anxiety," Journal of Psychopharmacology 7: 82-88.
Zuardi, A. W., Morais, S. L., Guimaraes, F. S. and Mechoulam, R. (1995) "Antipsychotic effect of cannabidiol," Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 56: 485-486.
Was this article helpful?