Drugs Analyzed By Ce

A single drug can be analyzed for different purposes, e.g., TDM, metabolic, forensic, pharmaceutical, or pharmacological. In the pharmaceutical industry CE is used to determine drug purity or to study its metabolism. The same conditions used for these studies, buffer, pH, voltage, internal stan dards, and so on, can be extended or modified for use in separation of therapeutic drugs. However, unlike the pharmaceutical industry, the emphasis in TDM is on speed, precision, automation, and sample clean up. However, it turns out many of the methods developed for the different drugs are very similar to each other. For this reason, Altria et al. described a general CE method employing a high pH borate buffer, which was validated to allow analysis of a wide range of acidic pharmaceutical compounds using a variety of internal standards (45). They also validated a similar procedure for the analysis of basic compounds (46). Based on our experience for TDM, anionic drugs are separated best in borate buffer, 200 mmol/L, after sample deproteinization with 2 vol of acetonitrile. Sample loading can be from 1-10% of the capillary volume (9). Cationic compounds, on the other hand, are better analyzed using triethanolamine buffers (24). Neutral compounds can be analyzed in either borate or phosphate buffers containing SDS (MEKC). Standards are added to the serum directly to reduce problems with matrix effects. Obviously it is easier to analyze a single compound than several at the same time. In most of these methods ultraviolet (UV) detection has been utilized, although in a few procedures, fluorescence or laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection has been used. The majority these methods have been validated for their linearity, detection limits, accuracy, and precision. A few of these methods used sample extraction although most injected serum with or without acetonitrile treatment. Use of on-line sample clean up and concentration for drugs is a very attractive procedure due to its simplicity and speed. It has been described by Strausbauch et al. (47) and Morita (48) and reviewed by Guzman et al. (49).

Growing interest in the analysis of drugs by CE is indicated by the publication of several review articles (50-54) in addition to a whole journal issue dedicated to CE and drug analysis (55). The practical aspects of TDM analysis by CE has been described (50). Studies, that have dealt primarily with TDM are discussed more in detail later, whereas other studies of general interest are listed in Table 1.

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