Use of an organic solvent or by a solid phase to extract drugs from serum also removes the proteins and salts present. In addition to sample clean-up, extraction methods can also be used to concentrate the drug. In routine analysis, solvent and solid-phase extractions followed by solvent evaporation are usually avoided as much as possible because of the time, labor, and skill required. However, drugs present in serum below 1 mg/L usually require extraction and concentration. Different strategies of sample pretreatment and methods for direct injection of bio-fluids for drug analysis by CE have been recently reviewed by Lloyd (19).

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