Effects of Weight Loss on MetS Components

Although obesity is thought to be the main predisposing factor for MetS, how it relates to insulin resistance is not precisely established. Abdominal obesity was identified as being particularly associated with several of the components of MetS,2 3 and weight gain has been shown to be strongly correlated with MetS.12 Although the precise answer to the question whether it is nature (genetic) or nurture (environment) is not known, it seems that it is probably both, to some extent. Nevertheless, it is clear that the current epidemic of obesity, and as a correlate of MetS, is related to modern lifestyles that emphasize overconsump-tion of high-caloric food and lack of physical activity.1,2

Effective for long-term weight loss are reduced-energy diets, consisting of a 500- to 1000-calorie/day reduction. A realistic goal for weight reduction is to reduce body weight by 7-10% over a period of 6 to 12 months. Numerous studies have shown that significant improvement of several abnormalities of MetS, including dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension, can be observed, even with a modest amount of weight loss.6,10 For every kilogram of weight loss the following favorable changes occur: fasting serum cholesterol, -1.0%; LDL cholesterol, -0.7%; triglycerides,-1.9%; HDL cholesterol, +0.2%; systolic blood pressure, -0.5%; diastolic blood pressure, -0.4%; and fasting glucose, -0.2 mmol/L. The impact of weight reduction on diabetes mellitus is particularly impressive.10

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