Caregiver Training Courses

Caregiver Training Ebooks

The caregiver training e-book gives a training course on how to provideassistance to another person who is ill, disabled or needs help with daily activities. It can also serve as a useful guide to the individuals in the need of help. The product deals in physical, mental, social, and psychological needs and well-being of both the caregivers and the elderly person requiring care. Everyone needs a little help from time to time and while many seniors lean on the friends and family members for support, there may be some instances in which it's necessary to seek additional assistance or long-term care which was why this product was created by the author. This caregiver product is a practical guide created by the author who is an expert in the field. This product embeds in it several training sections in which each section gives detailed information on how to provide assistance to people who are ill, disabled, or aged. This product is a trusted and 100% guarantee to provide the necessary details needed in caring for the physically challenged, aged and ill individuals. The product is also an essential overview of issues from Alzheimer's to diabetes to strokes. More here...

Caregiver Training Ebooks Summary


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Contents: Ebooks
Author: Kenneth Watts
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My Caregiver Training Ebooks Review

Highly Recommended

I've really worked on the chapters in this book and can only say that if you put in the time you will never revert back to your old methods.

All the modules inside this ebook are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

Caregiver Differences

A number of researchers have conceptualized emotion regulation as developing within the context of the parent-child relationship (e.g., Gianino & Tronick, 1988). Parent-child interaction involves mutual regulation in which caregiver and child each modulate the affect of the other (e.g., Tronick, 1989). The parent-child context may be characterized as more unresponsive and poorly coordinated in which case, the parent fails to recognize the child's emotional needs or ignores the child's existing capabilities or smoothly coordinated with matching of parent and child affect (Field, 1994). Greenspan (1981) similarly discussed the growth-promoting early environment as one that balances the child's need for stimulation with his or her need to experience homeostasis or self-regulation. According to his view, the parent initially provides soothing or comforting to supplement the child's emerging capacities. As the child becomes older, the parent helps the child integrate affective polarities...

Disentangling Concepts Emotional Control Versus Regulation

Others, theorists, notably Kopp (1982) and Block and Block (1980), have made distinctions between emotion control and emotion regulation. Kopp (1982), for example, discussed self-control and self-regulation as stages in the child's development of behavior regulation. In the stage of self-control, the child has the ability to comply with the caregiver's demands and directives in the absence of the caregiver. Though emitted by the child, the behavior is rigid, conforming to the original directive. In contrast, the stage of self-regulation involves the flexible guiding of behavior. The child's behavior at this point is actively and flexibly adjusted to meet the demands of new situations. We concur with this distinction between control and regulation however, we do not see these as developmental stages but, rather, as a continuum of regulation which is a function both of development and individual differences among children. While for Kopp (1982) the stage of self-control is not...

Conceptual and Methodological Issues

Another set of challenges concerns the generality versus specificity of the adaptiveness of emotion regulation processes. As discussed above, the adaptiveness of various strategies depends on the context within which they are occurring. For example, the functionality of the use of caregivers depends on their availability and other situational constraints. If this is so, a taxonomy of adaptive strategies and developmentally appropriate emotion regulation is highly dependent on the situation. This issue is paralleled in the coping literature in which researchers stress that the same coping strategy may be adaptive or nonadaptive, depending on the situation (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). For example, denial and avoidance-like processes may be constructive in situations in which no direct action can overcome the harm or threat. Conversely, problem-focused strategies are presumed to be more useful with potentially controllable stressors (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).

Suggested Readings And Resources

What every patient, family, friend, and caregiver needs to know about psychiatry. Washington, DC American Psychiatric Press. This book is written for laypersons but makes a nice introduction to psychiatry for budding mental health professionals. Be forewarned that it has a clear medical model, as illustrated by its discussions of emotional versus mental illness.

Conclusion and Future Directions

In this chapter, we have presented a model of the development of emotional self-regulation in infancy and toddlerhood that is organized around the construct of autonomy. In our framework, we focus on children's emotional responsiveness as well as the strategies children use to modulate that responsiveness. We argue that movement along a continuum of autonomy toward more active, flexible strategies for regulating affect is a natural phenomenon fueled by children's innate propensities to master their environments and to take on or internalize regulatory structures provided by caregivers. We provide evidence that emotional self-regulation is a developmental phenomenon, with more autonomous strategies evident with increasing age, as well as an individual difference phenomenon, influenced by both temperamental characteristics and caregiver influences. The complex nature of emotional self-regulation is illustrated by the contextual and situational nature of adaptive strategies, specificity...

Nonparental Contextual Characteristics

In distinguishing contextual influences on child temperament from influences of child temperament on context, one approach would be to look at aspects of the environment which are potentially less sensitive to the influence of child temperament. One such aspect is the physical environment the stage or setting on which social transactions between child and caregiver take place (Wohlwill & Heft, 1987). The extent to which a child's temperamental characteristics can act to influence dimensions of the physical environment, such as number of wall decorations or rooms to people ratio, is both less likely and less intuitively obvious. Rather, it is more likely that specified dimensions of the physical environment can act to influence child temperament characteristics. One such dimension is environmental chaos, which involves factors such as crowding (e.g., rooms to people ratio), and levels of nonhuman noise in the home. Several studies provide converging evidence of the importance of...

Video and Audio Recordings

Seriously ill, or children or other vulnerable people. When disability prevents patients from giving informed consent, the GMC advises the doctor to obtain agreement from a close relative or caregiver where children lack the understanding to consent, the permission of the parent or guardian is recommended.

For Core Theoretical Propositions

Importantly, Ainsworth's contribution to our understanding of attachment went well beyond the development of an important method for measuring individual differences. Most significantly, it was she who first theorized in detail about why some infants would develop secure and others insecure attachments to their mothers and published data addressing this issue. Using highly detailed ratings of the quality of maternal behavior based upon repeated observations of her sample of 26 middle-class families, Ainsworth (1973) found that it was maternal sensitivity that accounted for why some infants behaved in a secure manner in the Strange Situation when one year of age whereas others behaved insecurely. Central to the notion of sensitivity was the mother's ability to read the infant's behavioral and especially emotional cues and respond in a timely and appropriate manner that served the infant's needs. Thus, mothers who reared secure infants responded in a timely manner to their infants'...

Health Risks Associated with Single Parent Families

While there appears to be a consensus that children of single parents, especially of single mothers, exhibit behaviors that range from antisocial to increased teenage pregnancy, there is contradictory evidence about increased health risks associated with single-parenthood. Harris and colleagues (1999) reported a very well designed study comparing adolescents from intact families, single-parent families, and blended families coping with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). Data on wide-ranging medical, social, and psychological factors were collected on 119 adolescents and their primary caregivers. Of these, 65 resided in intact families, 38 in single-parent families, and 16 in blended families. Adolescent subjects had an average age of 14.3 years.

Medical and Sexual History

When children are examined, the parent or caregiver should provide comprehensive details of the past medical history. When adults are examined, only relevant medical and sexual history should be sought because confidentiality cannot be guaranteed. What constitutes relevant medical history must be determined on a case-by-case basis by considering the differential causes for any medical findings and the persistence data for the different sexual acts.

Fabricated or Induced Illness

The fabrication or induction of illness in children by a caregiver is referred to by several different terms, most commonly Munchausen syndrome by proxy, factitious illness by proxy or illness induction syndrome. In the United States, the term pediatric condition falsification is being adopted by the American Fabricated or induced illness is a persistent fabrication of a child's illness either simulated or produced by the child's parent or caretaker. There are three main ways of the caregiver fabricating or inducing illness in a child

Pain Measurement in Children With Neurocognitive Impairment

Some of the work done in this area has provided a broader view of acute and postoperative pain. In one study, 24 children aged 3-19 years with cognitive impairment were rated by their caregivers and researchers regarding perceived intensity of the child's pain pre- and postsurgery (23). One outcome of this study was that familiarity with the individual child was not necessary for observers to have congruent pain measurements (23). Another study generated a checklist of typical pain behaviors from interviews with 33 caregivers and compared that list with another from a different cohort of 63 children with similar cognitive impairment. Seven observational items were predictive of numerical pain ratings with 85 sensitivity and 89 specificity. It is clear that caregivers' retrospective reports may have clinical utility (24). Pain cues reported by 29 caregivers of noncommunicative children 2-12 years old with life-limiting conditions were compared against a checklist of 203 items. This...

Practical Implementation of Nutritional Support

Depending on the underlying cause of energy imbalance (decreased dietary intake or increased nutritional requirements), initial nutritional therapy may range from adaptations of the dietary behaviour and food pattern to implementation of nutritional supplements. Nutritional support should be given as energy-dense supplements well-divided during the day to avoid loss of appetite and adverse metabolic and ventilatory effects resulting from a high caloric load. When feasible, patients should be encouraged to follow an exercise program. For severely disabled cachectic patients unable to perform exercise training, even simple strength manoeuvres combined with ADL training and energy conservation techniques may be effective. Exercise not only improves the effectiveness of nutritional therapy, but also stimulates appetite. After 4-8 weeks, the response to therapy can be determined. If weight gain and functional improvement are noted, the caregiver and the patient have to decide whether...

Back to Our Patients Needs

To conclude, for professional caregivers, too, education certainly has its place. It should be noted, though, that in most cases what is needed is not psychotherapy expertise in any traditional sense. The key issue is to understand behavioral dynamics and motivational processes, and to apply one's own communication skills. This will provide the best possible atmosphere for cardiac patients and their spouses to develop empowerment and optimism about the future.

Maintenance and Management of the System

In the affective domain, the nurturing and support was compromised simply by the virtue of Mrs. Dale's level of incapacity. But it ought to be acknowledged that Dales could not possibly function like a healthy or effective family as prescribed by the MMFF. She was wholly dependent on her husband for her physical and emotional care. She was not in a position to reciprocate. On the other hand, the fact that Mr. Dale so willingly assumed his extra responsibilities on top of his regular job was a clear indication of the strength of their relationship. The quality of their life was seriously compromised. Their sexual relations had come to a halt, their social life was nonexistent, and all their activities had come to a halt. From being a fully engaged partner, she was thrust into the role of a very disabled patient, and her husband a nurse and a caregiver. Their role function, under these circumstances, could not be construed as effective, and yet, given the magnitude of change in the...

The Tavistock Principles

Here you are confronted with the tension between the need to learn by doing and doing no harm to patients. There is a utilitarian ethical principle that reminds us that if clinicians-in-training do not learn, then there will be no future caregivers. Yet the dictums to do no harm and prioritize what is in the patient's best interests are clearly in conflict with that future need. As a student this dilemma will arise often. Obtaining informed consent is the process for addressing this ethical dilemma. Making sure the patient realizes that you are in training and new at patient evaluation is always important. It is impressive how often patients willingly let students be involved in their care. It is an opportunity for patients to give back to their caregivers. Even when clinical activities appear to be purely for educational purposes, there may be a benefit to the patient. Multiple caregivers provide multiple perspectives. This scenario invokes the Tavistock Principles of openness,...

The Contribution of Nurses in Heart Failure Rehabilitation

Steep learning curve to use the equipment, for patient and or caregiver Telemonitoring is a tool that allows the heart failure team to monitor daily the physiological variables and symptoms measured by patients or caregivers at home. Patients with heart failure can be kept under close supervision in their own homes. Telemonitoring uses the technology of special telecare devices and a telecommunication system standard telephone lines, cable network or broadband technology. The use of telemonitoring has increased in order to support chronically ill patients. Before telemonitoring can spread broadly in clinical practice, more widely available low-cost, user-friendly telemonitoring equipment as well as further evaluations of effects are needed.

Respite and Recuperation

The fourth reason for removing people from their environment is simply to provide an opportunity for rest, respite, or recovery. The general idea is that, if the management of disease, disability, or suffering is a constant task for the patient, caregivers, or both, then the temporary reprovision of that care in a formal environment will provide opportunities for resources of time to be spent differently in the home. The typical example is respite care for families who have children with complex congenital disability caused by conditions, such as cerebral palsy.

Questions Related to the Clinical Assessment of the Older Person

Relevant questions also concern reversible barriers to treatment, including inadequate transportation, limited economic resources, and absence of a home caregiver able to react in the presence of emergencies, and additional risk factors, such as malnutrition, polypharmacy, memory disorders, depression, and poorly controlled comorbidity.

Nurse Led Self Care Management Programs

Although good self-care management has been shown to increase positive outcomes, people with several co-morbidities may sometimes feel overwhelmed and be unable to perform self-care strategies without additional individual and family support7 and it is important that the educational and emotional needs of a patient's family and caregivers are attended to. In the UK, two cognitive behavioral cardiac rehabilitation programs that meet these criteria and are facilitated by a health professional and carried out mainly at home have proved both successful and popular with staff and patients. These are the Heart Manual8 and the Angina Plan.9

Monoclonal Antibodies

Radioimmunoconjugates provide monoclonal antibody-targeted delivery of radioactive particles to tumor cells (Table 2). 131Iodine (131I) is a commonly used radioisotope since it is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and easily conjugated to a monoclonal antibody. The y-particles emitted by 131I can be used for both imaging and therapy, but they have the drawbacks of releasing free 131I and 131I-tyrosine into the blood and present a potential health hazard to care givers. The P-emitter, 90Yttrium (90Y), has emerged as an attractive alternative to 131I, based on its higher energy and longer path length, which may be more effective in tumors with larger diameters. It also has a short half-life and remains conjugated, even after endocytosis, providing a safer profile for outpatient use. However, disadvantages include its inability to image, and it is less available and more expensive. Clinically, radioimmunoconjugates have been developed with murine monoclonal antibodies against...

Modulation of Visceral Pain by Stress

Stress influences the manifestations or the development of visceral pain in IBS patients (Table 1) (5,8,9). For instance, IBS patients exposed to an acute psychological or physical stressor exhibit increased visceral sensitivity to rectal electrostimulation (10). Convergent clinical reports established that stressful life events before or after an acute enteric infection are strong predictors of acquiring postinfectious IBS (26). Childhood trauma by biopsychosocial stressful factors (neglect, abuse, loss of caregiver, or life threatening situation) impact the susceptibility to subsequently develop visceral pain and comorbidity with anxiety, depression, and emotional distress (34-36).

An Older Retired Couple

Engaging this couple was very problematic, and the only reason Mrs. Friesen agreed to the initial interview was that she had accompanied her husband. The therapist requested that she join her husband since she was the principal caregiver, and her perspectives on how Mr. Friesen was doing would be very useful. At some point during the initial session, she started venting her frustration and anger with the medical profession for its singular failure to help her husband. But reframing Mr. Friesen's medical problem into a marital issue proved problematic. It was suggested that perhaps certain aspects of their life could be improved. Mr. Friesen responded positively to the suggestion, but he failed to elaborate. Mrs. Friesen merely acquiesced, but remained suspicious of the process. On the basis of the MMFF, the following issues emerged.

Objectives for a Clinical Trial

The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of treatment on a critical hallmark of cachexia, the patients' loss of lean body mass. Lean body mass is a biologically rational endpoint and logical target measure for the efficacy assessment of anti-TNF-a therapy. Loss of meta-bolically active lean tissue, including skeletal respiratory muscle, is associated with worsened performance status, a higher incidence of infections and toxicities due to chemotherapy, progressive impairment of function, dependence on care-givers, and markedly decreased survival time. Clinical evidence of preservation of lean body mass in these cancer patients would provide proof of the concept that blocking the actions of TNF-a systemically with infliximab can inhibit the prote-olytic pathways of cachexia.

Recommendations for the Treatment of Elderly Cancer Patients with Hemopoietic Growth Factors

Fatigue may reduce the working capacity of as many as 50 of the cancer patients and 25 of their caregivers. Fatigue may precipitate functional dependence in older individuals (15-18,86), with two costly consequences. First the patient may become incapacitated to provide important money saving functions, such as caregiving for an older spouse or for the grandchildren. Second, the patient himself herself may need a home caregiver as well as costly rehabilitation.

Longterm Memory Before Age Three

Current evidence points to a compelling link between individual differences in children's memory reports and variations in the social environments in which they live. A central element of the social environment is the conversations children have with adults. Such conversations influence children's event recall in several ways that are now well documented. As Nelson (1993) noted, the process of co-construction of memories that takes place in conversations between children and their caregivers gives children a model for encoding and recalling events. As children make gains in language, they absorb and practice the dominant narrative structure with which those around them discuss events. In this way, children learn to discuss past events in appropriate, socially shared ways, and they also learn to accumulate and organize personal event memories that become part of their unique autobiographical history (e.g., Fivush & Hudson, 1990 Nelson, 1993 Tessler & Nelson, 1994).

Outcome Measurement and Audit

Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is defined as The sum of activities required to ensure the best possible physical, mental and social conditions, so that the cardiac patient may resume as normal a place as possible in the life of the community. 1 This implies the use of an individually tailored combination of physiological, clinical, psychological and social methods. Measuring the outcome of a multifaceted intervention is a methodological and logistical challenge. At present quality assurance of CR is relatively uncommon even though guidelines recommend that data are routinely collected and presented.2 Thus, as CR programs must compete for resources with other healthcare modalities, caregivers will increasingly demand auditing of the service.

Fear of Pain Episodes at School

A primary goal in working with these children is to assist them in learning that they can cope with their pain (4). Walker recommended that children's initial return to school be brief, perhaps only 1-2 hours day. Most children will be able to attend school and even manage their pain for brief periods. The brief school attendance will assist children in building confidence so they may later be able to survive a pain episode at school. The child's health care provider and caregivers should have a plan in place in case the child experiences pain while at school. It is typically best if the child is allowed to lie down and rest until well enough to return to class or until it is time to leave school for the day. A child may also work with a school counselor to learn relaxation or distraction techniques (4,14). Walker cautioned it is often counterproductive for children to call home or be allowed to leave school early when a pain episode occurs as this reinforces complaining and passive...

Family Reinforcement of Sick Behavior

No specific differences have been found between families of well children and those of children with chronic pain on family measures like marital satisfaction and cohesion (4). However, some clinical evidence suggests that these families may differ in areas not gaged by standardized instruments. Overprotectiveness and enmeshment are two of these areas. Walker suggested that social modeling of pain may contribute to recurrent pain episodes among children, particularly if the child vicariously observes a parent receiving attention from other family members if there are complaints of pain. Levy and coworkers noted that a child may learn pain behavior when caregivers seek extensive medical consultation for pain (16). Walker noted that caregivers of children with abdominal pain may view their children as vulnerable, and these caregivers may attempt to protect their children from potential health-related threats (4). This pattern may result in caregivers letting a child stay home from...

Family Process Models

Concerns about parental investment in children span many decades and many disciplines, from evolutionary biology (Trivers, 1972) to economics (Becker, 1991) to psychology (Hertwig, Davis, & Sulloway, 2002). Each decade and each discipline has put its own stamp on the issue, but there is consensus on one belief investing in children entails costs. As the trend toward disinvestment in family and child rearing has accelerated (Popenoe, 1993), our research has focused more intensively on parental involvement in the lives of children. We constructed a measure called Parents' Socioemotional Investment in Children (PIC Bradley, Whiteside-Mansell, Brisby, & Caldwell, 1997). The PIC assesses four components of investment acceptance of the parenting role, delight in the child, knowledge sensitivity, and separation anxiety. A study done on 137 mothers of 15-month-old children revealed that PIC was related to the quality of caregiving, maternal depression, neuroticism, agreeableness, social...

Increasing School Attendance 31 Assessment

A careful analysis is critical in the identification of factors that may contribute to the child's or the family's reluctance about the child's return to school. These data should be elicited from both the child and the caregiver in a forthright interview, with specific questions about coping with return to school, managing peer questions, and concerns about a new school environment.

Conclusions and Future Directions

This chapter underscores the potential efficacy of behavioral approaches in supporting children's return to school. Numerous reasons for lack of school attendance are reviewed, including separation anxiety, fear of returning to school because of missed work, specific health- and pain-related issues that are made worse in the school setting, and inappropriate school placement. Despite the undisputed efficacy of behavioral approaches at school, potential barriers exist. These can include a lack of information among both caregivers and school professionals on the value of behavioral approaches. Other barriers that might impede implementation of these behavioral techniques include severe psychopathology of caregivers, lack of motivation on the part of caregivers and school personnel, and reinforcement systems that are not sufficiently motivating to the child or are not followed carefully. staff services, adjunctive care for families, and transportation for caregivers) will also be...

Historical Context

Margaret Edson was born on July 4, 1961, in Washington, D.C. Her medical social worker mother and her newspaper columnist father encouraged her high school drama interests. After she received a bachelor's degree in Renaissance history, magna cum laude, from Smith College in 1983, she traveled for two years working at odd jobs. Then in 1985 she became an oncology and AIDS patient clerk and volunteer social worker at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, where she witnessed protocols being developed to treat patients for ovarian cancer and HIV. She wrote a training manual titled Living with AIDS Perspectives for Caregivers. In 1991, from observing the medical teams and patients on the ward and from listening, she wrote Wit (also known as W t), initially a regional theater and off-off Broadway production. Edson received a master's degree in English from Georgetown University in 1992, then she taught English as a second language and first grade in a Washington, D.C., public...

Electronic Health Record

EHRs are, at their simplest, replications of paper medical records. They can, however, be much more and could transform many aspects of health care and health care decision making. The promise of the EHR is consistent and universally available health information on individual patients. The EHR would ensure that test results are properly filed and accessible to caregivers, thereby eliminating duplication and reducing time delays and the chance of adverse interactions. There are, however, many problems with the implementation of EHRs. At the caregiver end, many health professionals do not have the time currently needed to enter the data. The myriad current medical records systems do not communicate easily, and repeated transformations of poorly designed EHRs can be more cumbersome and error prone than the traditional paper record. New breeds of EHRs based on standards and meta-tagging are under investigation to remove these barriers. Once the EHR is established in the health care...

Stakeholder Repositioning

Advances in genomics, proteomics, glycomics, and the related molecular level technologies are redefining the patient-doctor relationship and the role of caregivers. For example, consider how the onslaught of ge-nomic information will be incorporated into the training and practice of physicians. One possibility is that information on gene testing and related tests will be incorporated into the existing medical specialties as it becomes clinically relevant. This scenario is most likely as new laboratory tests such as gene-chip based diagnostic tools become available. These tests are novel today but are likely to be seamlessly incorporated into the daily activities of most physicians.

Exposure And Preschool Development

Were imposed to screen out mothers or children at high risk for adverse psychological outcomes due to other environmental or psychosocial stressors such as teenage parenting children living in foster homes or shelters residential instability or medical disability. Level 2 screening resulted in a subject inclusion rate of 23 . Excluded mothers included those (a) who were 18 years old or younger (b) who resided in target address less than past 9 12 months (c) who resided in shelters or other residential housing arrangement (d) who were recipients of Social Supplement Income (SSI) due to a medical disability, such as a mental illness, mental retardation, or a chronic physical illness and (e) who were not the child's primary caregiver. In addition, due to the linguistic limitations of the research team, mothers who did not speak English or Spanish were excluded. We excluded preschoolers with chronic medical problems, who were hospitalized for over two weeks in the last year, who had an...

Clinical Implications Mother

Breast Pinch

Usually little attention is given to prenatal assessment of the breast and nipples because of Western cultural inhibitions about the breast and lack of recognition of its importance. As a consequence, after giving birth, mothers may experience feeding difficulties that could have been prevented. Nurses and lactation consultants practicing as primary caregivers are the ideal people to perform a prenatal breast assessment, particularly because physicians (especially males) are often reluctant to do so.

Medical Causes Of Delirium

Regardless of etiology, delirium produces a profound disturbance of brain function, and all etiologies are serious and potentially fatal illnesses. Delirium must be approached as an acute medical emergency. A detailed history, aggressively pursued, is mandatory, and because the responses from these patients cannot be relied upon, information from family, friends, or other caregivers is essential. A thorough physical examination with emphasis on neurologic status, clarity of speech, level of awareness, attention span, facial droop, and weakness of an extremity must be established because such changes must be carefully and frequently assessed. Basic laboratory studies should focus on chemical abnormalities (glucose, creatinine, bilirubin, serum sodium levels) and evidence of hypoxia. The two threatening and potentially easily reversible conditions hypoxia and hypoglycemia should be immediately investigated and treated.

Complementary or Herbal Medicines Effect on Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

The elderly male patient in the ED with irregular heart rhythm was confused and unclear if he took double the dosage of digoxin or forgot to take the medication. The random digoxin was 2.4 ng mL (reference range, 0.5 to 1.5 ng mL), which indicates presence of a toxic high drug level. Renal and hepatic function for the patient was later found to be unimpaired based on normal creatinine and bilirubin results. There was no evidence of circulatory problems. Renal failure, declining hepatic function, or poor circulation could all prolong the elimination of a drug, causing it to maintain higher than expected levels, but they were ruled out. Likewise, changes in fluid levels can affect distribution of the drug to the tissues and cause it to remain longer in blood circulation. The patient's current dosage will need to be adjusted down and or the dosing interval lengthened to provide a drug level within the therapeutic range for the immediate future. The pharmacist and physician will work...

The Meaning of Eating in Terminally Ill Patients Importance of Carers

Meares et al. conducted semi-structured interviews with women primary caregivers of adult inhome hospice patients with terminal cancer 15 . This systematic qualitative study summarises as follows 'Shift in thinking eating is best to not eating is best .' It reports seven elements related to gradual cessation of oral intake (1) the meaning of food (cultural aspects, love, socialised role of food, social situations, dinner hour) (2) the caregiver as sustainer (knowledge of care-giving, difference of emotion and intellect, vigilance, balance of respect and concern in choice of action) (3) concurrent losses (lived experience enmeshed, carer's personal pain) (4) personal responses (patient eats to please family) (5) ceasing to be-starved to death (6) being bereaved - the meaning now (meaning of cooking changed, patient remembered by using the old, shared cooking ware) (7) paradox (wavering pattern). This work did not specifically assess caregiver eating-distress, but provided insights...

Prevalence And Psychological Consequences Of Exposure To Community Violence

Based on the community violence studies of the early 1990s, between 44-82 of school-aged children and youth are exposed to community violence, depending on definitional criteria, methodology, and sample characteristics (Overstreet, 2000 Stein, Jaycox, Kataoka, Rhodes, & Vestal, 2003). According to the early studies, by the end of elementary school, almost all children residing in high crime innercity areas of Washington and New Orleans had heard (98 ) or witnessed (90 ) moderate to severe levels of violent occurrences (Richters & Martinez, 1993 Osofsky, Wewers, Hann, & Fick, 1993). School-aged children exposed to community violence are at risk for an array of problematic behavior including lower self-competence (Farver, Ghosh, & Garcia, 2000), high levels of distress (Martinez & Richters, 1993), depression (Durant, Getts, Cadenhead, Emans, & Woods, 1995), post-traumatic stress disorder (Fitzpatrick & Boldizar, 1993 Jaycox, Stein, Kataoka, Wong, Fink, Escudero, & Zaragoza, 2002),...

Family Income and Early Child Care

Child-care quality usually encompasses (1) the child-provider relationship and child experiences (e.g., amount of verbal and cognitive stimulation, responsiveness, stability) (2) structural and caregiver characteristics (e.g., ratios, group size, caregiver education, physical environment materials) and, (3) health and safety provisions (Lamb, 1997 Phillips, 1995). High quality care may serve as a protective factor for low-income children, and low quality care may compound other risk factors (Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000). Information about the number of hours, stability, and type of child care was collected from parents by telephone every 3 or 4 months. Children who were in nonmaternal care for more than 10 hours a week were observed in whatever child-care setting their parents used at each of the major assessment periods (6, 15, 24, 36, 54 months). Both structural features (e.g., adult-child ratio, group size, caregiver training) and processes were assessed during an observation...

The Health of the Partners Spouses and the Children

Caregiving for a sick or disabled partner is a complex issue. At a commonsense level, the fact that an elderly caregiver for a partner with Alzheimer's disease would experience inordinate pressures and anxieties, and even develop physical symptoms, does not hold any mystery. However, when the question of the spouse or partner as a source of social and emotional support is taken into account, then the magnitude of the difficulties associated with caregiving becomes palpable. In many discussions of caregiving, this aspect of the relationship is ignored. But when a partner falls prey to disease and disability, we must recognize that the well partner will lose a significant source of social and emotional support. The value of a marital relationship as a source of mutual support, and its ability to deal more effectively with the vicissitudes of life, as compared with the vulnerability of single persons to morbidity and mortality, is well documented (Amato and Zuo, 1992 Ben-Shlomo et al.,...

Who Does What An Exploration of Family Roles

Another point of consideration is an understanding of the concept of the chronic sick role that helps determine the functional level of a chronically sick individual. Given the limitations imposed by a chronic illness, what roles could be maintained without any detriment to the patient's health and well-being This is much more complex task than it might appear at first glance. Who, for instance, determines the optimum level of functioning for a patient Patients and caregivers may be at odds as to what may or may not be the acceptable level of function. Even family members find themselves at odds on this matter. Given the hidden and invisible nature of chronic pain, and family members often being told that nothing noteworthy is wrong with the patient, expectations about what a patient may be able to do or not do becomes a source of conflict. In any consideration of family roles in chronic pain families, the possibility of role conflict is substantial, and this conflict is often rooted...

Transfusion In Palliative Care

When, quality may not be significantly altered.92-94 Transfusions can be administered in the patient's home as well as in conventional care settings however, home transfusion therapy requires greater commitment and communication between care givers in order to provide safe and efficient transfusion therapy.95-98 Home transfusion therapy, and transfusion in the hospice setting, has been well-received by those patients unable or unwilling to travel to the hospital or infusion unit.99-101 If palliative care initiatives for adult and pediatric patients are to be performed in the home, then transfusion therapy should be given consideration in this setting. Adverse reactions to transfusions should be handled with the same due diligence as in any other conventional care setting in order to guard against and prevent any increased morbidity and mortality.97-101

Approach To Dementia Alzheimer Disease

When the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is made, a comprehensive care plan should be initiated. The management of Alzheimer disease must he directed both at the patient and at the patient's family or caregivers. The goals of therapy are to maximize the cognition, delay functional decline and prevent or improve the behavioral disturbances. Behavioral interventions also may be beneficial. These can include scheduled toileting in an effort to reduce episodes of incontinence, writing reminder notes, keeping familiar objects around, providing adequate lighting, and making duplicates of important objects (e.g keys) in case they get lost. Caregivers also need support and may benefit from appropriate training, support groups, and periodic respite care.

Pain Measurement by Methods Other Than Self Report

Many children are unable to have their pain measured by self-report because they are nonverbal or otherwise unable to self-report by indicating nonverbally, such as by pointing. This can be because of young age, cognitive impairment, or regression with illness. The use of formal behavioral measurement scales and having a trusted caregiver report on behavioral changes observed in the infant or child are components of assessing pain in the nonverbal child. Noting changes in such physiological parameters as the elevation of pulse or blood pressure can be helpful when present. However, changes in such measures are not necessarily consistent or reliable correlates for pain, particularly in the very ill child and if pain is chronic.

The Pediatric Pain Experience

The magnitude of the problem of inadequate pain treatment in children was brought to light in the late 1980s when studies in various institutions independently confirmed that children were undertreated despite the caregivers' recognition of the presence of pain (13,14). The incidence of pediatric pain is unknown because most studies addressed either one specific type of pain or pain treatment and not the general presence and intensity of pain. Anxiety during blood sampling via venipuncture has been cited as a major cause of distress for children. Up to

Stability of Temperament2

My choice of evidence to address the first area listed above is based on methodological considerations. As Crockenberg (1986) has noted, in studies that concurrently measure temperament and context it often is difficult to establish whether it is the child's temperament influencing their caregiver's rearing style, or the caregiver's rearing style that is influencing the child's level of temperament. Given this potential confound my conclusions on temperament and context will be based on (a) longitudinal investigations in which the measurement of temperament precedes the measurement of context or vice versa (b) studies assessing nonparental aspects of the environment that are less likely to be influenced by the child's temperament, thus allowing inferences to be made about directionality when relations between temperament and environment are found and (c) intervention studies that allow causal inferences to be made. Obviously, there still will be interpretive problems, even with these...

Emotion Regulation and Later Adaptation

Attention deployment strategies more able to use cognitive strategies as they become older What sorts of caregiver influences impact on individual differences in the use of coping strategies When does the use of less autonomous strategies become emotional dysregulation What roles do temperament and caregiver styles play in extreme forms of dysregulation How early are these difficulties evident In addressing these and other questions, the study of emotion regulation promises to provide important insight into the development of problem behaviors and clinical disorders.

Friendship As Affective Relationships

Furthermore, the processes of relationship formation embedded in Bowlby's (1969, 1982) attachment theory began to be understood as also applicable to relationships other than the child-mother attachment (Howes, 1996). According to this reinterpretation of attachment theory, relationships (whether attachment or playmate relationships) develop through multiple and recursive interactive experiences. Recursive interactions are well-scripted social exchanges which are repeated many times with only slight variation (Bretherton, 1985). Examples include infant caregiver interaction around bedtime or repeated toddler-age peer run-and-chase games. From these experiences, the infant or young child internalizes a set of fundamental social expectations about the behavioral dispositions of the partner (Bowlby, 1969 1982). These expectations form the basis for an internal working model of relationships. Therefore, through repeated experiences of social and social pretend play with a particular peer,...

Clinical Approach

In assessing the patient with dementia, the clinician should strive to answer three questions (1) What is the most likely diagnosis (2) Is any treatable or reversible condition contributing to the patient's cognitive decline (3) What interventions are available to preserve the patient's level of function and relieve the burden to caregivers

Pretreatment Evaluation And Education

In addition, use of other medication is discussed, particularly the use of Tylenol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Tylenol is preferred as the drug of choice for the flu-like symptoms associated with IFN, and for the headaches, but many patients are worried about the use of Tylenol and need to be informed that up to 3 g d has little liver toxicity. Patients are advised that, before they start any new therapy, they should inform their caregiver that they have chronic liver disease. Many patients are interested in the use of vitamin preparations and herbal remedies, which are discussed in Chapter 13. The authors do, however, recommend that patients should avoid iron-containing multivitamins and high doses of vitamin A. Antioxidant therapy, such as milk thistle (Silymarin) and vitamin E, are almost ubiquitously used by patients with CHC. The vitamin E is the preferred antioxidant, at a dose of 800 U d. Many patients will not stop their herbal remedies, even...

The Parenting Environment

The parenting environment is best understood not only on the basis of the activities and objects it contains or generates, but also on the basis of its instrumentality for child care and child rearing (Korosec-Serafty, 1985). For individual parents there is a sense of boundary to the spaces where parenting takes place, but what actually constitutes the boundary varies across parents and time depending on an array of cultural, familial, personal, and child factors (Belsky, 1984 Bronfenbrenner, 1995). In effect, what is appropriated to the idea of the home environment is the meaning of the acts, objects, and places connected to parental caregiving. Different families may utilize different geographic settings to be part of the parenting environment (e.g., the street beside the house, the backyard, a neighborhood park). The parenting environment encompasses the locations where the activities of parental caregiving take place (Rapoport, 1985).

Understanding Individual Differences In Emotional Selfregulation

Within any age group, children differ greatly in both their level of emotional responsiveness and in the types of strategies they have available to regulate emotion. We now turn to a discussion of some of the factors that contribute to these individual differences in children's emotional self-regulatory abilities. In our model (see Figure 1.2) we focus on the role of child factors, especially temperament, that children might bring to the task of emotion regulation. We also examine the role of the social context, and in particular caregiver styles, in explaining individual differences in children's emotional expressiveness and strategy use. Caregiver Context

Within Task Learning versus Previously Acquired Knowledge Revisited

Given that the evidence did not support sensory explanations for the female face preference displayed by young infants, a cognitive explanation for the preference was investigated. This explanation rests on the idea that infants might prefer female over male faces because of greater familiarity with female faces. It is known that familiarity preferences can be observed in face comparisons as is evidenced by the finding that young infants will display a spontaneous preference for mother's face over a strange female face, even in the absence of external hair cues (Bartrip, Morton, & de Schonen, 2001). In addition, a majority of infants in the first 3 months of life are reared with female primary caregivers, and this was true for all the infants thus far described for the experiments of Quinn et al. (2002). These observations led to the hypothesis that infants might generalize their experiences with primary caregivers who are female to female faces more generally (at least when compared...

Emotional Responsiveness

Fox (1989) used this conceptualization of temperament to account for differences in the types of strategies that children need to regulate their emotions. He argued that children's reactivity levels shape the sort of emotion regulation strategies they need to acquire. For example, a child who is highly reactive, but possesses few regulatory skills, may become aroused too quickly and may be prevented from exercising existing strategies. He or she thus may be forced to rely on the assistance of caregivers more often than another, less reactive child. Under such circumstances, highly reactive children would have fewer opportunities to elaborate or expand their repertoire of regulatory strategies compared to less reactive children or those who possess some self-regulatory skills. Fox also claimed that temperamental factors, such as mood lability and domination by only one or a couple of emotions, can be linked to less adaptive emotion regulatory processes, such as lack of access to the...

Cultural Influences On The Expression Of Individual Differences In Temperament

While there is little direct evidence for the position taken by Kagan et al. (1993), some evidence does exist for the operation of a reverse process namely, that the meaning, expression, and consequences of temperament can be moderated by cultural characteristics. Perhaps the most dramatic example of this phenomena is seen in evidence indicating that fussy difficult infants living in developing countries are more likely to survive during drought conditions (DeVries, 1984), or where there are high levels of infant mortality (Scheper-Hughes, 1987). Differential survival rates appear to be based, in part, on culturally driven beliefs about the desirability of certain infant characteristics. Less dramatic but equally valid, Thomas and Chess (1986) have noted how concepts like difficult temperament may have very different meanings in different cultural contexts. Characteristics that are viewed as difficult in one culture may not be viewed in the same way in other cultures. For example, in...

Profile Of The Older Cancer Patient

These studies should be highlighted the need to adjust the doses of chemotherapy to the renal function of older individuals, to investigate anemia, that is a risk factor for mortality, functional dependence, and chemotherapy related toxicity, the management of depression, and the provision of a home caregiver in patients at risk to develop functional dependence during cancer treatment.

He Is Not Well Enough to Do Much

The accident produced a remarkable change in Mrs. Vince. She took on the role of his spokesperson, accompanied him to all his medical appointments and defended and made a case for his continuing disability. He battled with the workers' compensation board and with physicians and other health-care professionals, and for the first time in his marriage Mr. Vince had the distinct feeling of having his wife on his side. He was the beneficiary of Mrs. Vince's caregiving role. The accident

Active Covariance

The fact that links between an individual's temperament and an individual's context can be attenuated by a variety of influences other than temperament illustrates a larger issue directly related to the active covariance process itself. In general, the assumption underlying both theory (Scarr & McCartney, 1983) and research in this area (Schulenberg, Wadsworth, O'Malley, Bachman, & Johnston, 1996) is that individuals have a high degree of freedom to self-select into a variety of different contextual niches. In contrast, I would argue that there will be multiple limitations on one's ability to self-select into different types of contexts. Specifically, a variety of biological (e.g., malnutrition, chronic illness), caregiver belief (e.g., tolerance of child independence, authoritarian rearing styles), cultural (e.g., racism), and nontemperament individual characteristics (e.g., attachment, cognitive ability) can act both to influence the individual's exposure to different environmental...

Future Directions

Attachment theory, once expanded beyond the study of early parent-child relationships, also is likely to continue be a powerful influence on the study of peer relationships. This work has suggested that attachments with alternative caregivers are influential to peer relations. Furthermore, descriptive studies have established that relationships between young children are stable affective bonds. These findings may lead researchers to move beyond the description of friendships towards the study of internal representations of friendships. The question of what internal representations are derived from early peer affective relationships and how these representations shape children's working models of relationships is far from answered. In this context, it is important that the earliest friendships appear to be based on some chemistry that leads toddlers to prefer each other rather than on matches between children of similar gender and ethnicity. As classrooms become filled with children...

Critical Values

Laboratory personnel are responsible for screening results in a timely manner and evaluating a result before releasing it. Critical values warrant immediate notification of patient care personnel. CLIA regulations state to alert the individual or entity requesting the test or the individual responsible for utilizing the test results. 25 This may include the physician, nurse, or other health-care giver. A reasonable attempt must be made to deliver results, exhausting all avenues of communication (e.g., telephone, beeper, answering service). It is not advisable to leave critical results on an answering machine, or send results through a fax machine or by e-mail. There is no guarantee of result retrieval in a suitable time frame.

Skin and sensation

Very few patients are able to lie or sit more than 4 h in the same position without getting redness in the skin of areas used for body support this is the first sign of pressure sores. The patient needs to be turned every fourth hour even during a skull traction period. Four to five caregivers are needed to do a safe log-roll of the patient. When the patient is mobilized to a wheel chair sitting position, selection of cushions is of great importance in order to avoid pressure sores. The risk of developing pressure sores persists in the cord-injured person and is increased during severe infections with increased body temperature. Under these circumstances the patient

Clinical Care

Sadly, significant barriers persist to excellence in pediatric pain management both at the end of a child's life and through the course of the child's illness. Misperceptions and concerns relating to pain in childhood and pain relief must be proactively addressed as the child is reliant on the adult caregivers for access to measures that ensure their comfort (17). Although a cross-Canada survey of pain practices in pediatric oncology centers was conducted since entering the millennium, this age of presumed increased awareness, addiction was mentioned as a barrier to optimal pain management. This mirrors the concerns clinicians encounter (49).

Instrumental Roles

The associated tasks here are for family members to provide one another with love, reassurance, support, understanding, affection, care, and comfort. One immediate concern for the Chapmans, given their preoccupation with their deteriorating financial situation,was adequate care for the two young children. Another reason for this concern was the reluctance with which Mr. Chapman assumed the care-giving role. Fortunately, there was no cause for concern. Mr. Chapman, despite his reluctance, proved to be an excellent parent. At no time, and this would be true even during periods of great anger and depression, did he neglect his children in any way. Even his wife was surprised by his total devotion to the welfare of his children. This shift in role, however, had an unpredictable consequence. The children now saw their father as the primary caregiver and sought him out for support. They would go their father whenever they wanted anything such as going out to play or something to eat. Mrs....


Counseling both male and female patients about the risks of pregnancy while on Rebetron therapy, or 6 mo after stopping treatment, is critically important for the caregiver, prior to starting treatment. IFN (5-10 mU) has been shown to cause abortion in pregnant rhesus monkeys, and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. IFN is therefore not advisable in pregnancy. Ribavirin has produced significant embryonal or teratogenic effects in every animal species studied. Ribavirin is completely contraindicated in pregnancy, and any female that becomes pregnant on ribavirin should immediately notify her physician, and receive appropriate counseling about teratogenicity and the option for therapy

Nonmaternal Care

When we examined the issue of relations between nonmaternal care and security of infant-parent attachment in our second and third longitudinal studies, using the Ainsworth et al. (1978) reunion-based Strange-Situation scoring system, two particularly interesting findings emerged. First, infants who experienced, on average, more than 20 hours per week of such care during their first year were more likely to develop insecure attachments than were children who experienced less nonmaternal care (Belsky & Rovine, 1988). In fact, when I compiled data from my own work and that from other studies of nonrisk samples that were published in the scientific literature , the same pattern emerged (Belsky, 1988). Subsequently, Clarke-Stewart (1989) and Lamb and colleagues (1990) undertook similar analyses, drawing upon both published and unpublished data. The results of these compilations of findings of research carried out in the United States across a variety of nonmaternal caregiving arrangements...

Treatment Structure

An adult accompanies each young person. The adult has two tasks. The first task is to act as the guardian for the adolescent. This also means that the service provider, the hospital, does not have to be staffed with pediatric nurses to act as a guardian for the children, giving the environment more in common with home and school than a hospital ward and substantially reducing costs. The second is to enable the primary caregiver of the adolescent to be exposed to treatment. This has become more explicit as an aim over the history of the treatment. The accompanying adult, usually the mother (although we have had good results with grandparents and older siblings), is present during most of the therapy sessions and is expected to participate in group discussion, exercise, and activity sessions.

MakeUp Work

Many children seem to be overwhelmed by the amount of make-up work when they return to school after a prolonged illness (4). Some children fear that they may not be able to complete all of the work, or that they may not understand the assignments. These feelings of self-doubt and negative cognitions may even exacerbate pain symptoms. In these cases, Walker suggested a structured plan in which a missed assignment is broken into manageable parts, with a schedule that underscores specific progress toward accomplishing missed assignments rather than completing final products. Caregivers and teachers can establish specific periods of time for making up missed assignments (e.g., performing make-up work for approx 30 minutes day). Frequently, caregivers must contact the school to determine what make-up work will be required and to negotiate a reasonable timeline for completing the assignments. A reduction in work assignments will sometimes be necessary if the child cannot manage the...

Learning Problems

A history of academic difficulties in one or more subject areas, problems with attention and concentration, failure to complete assignments, or an inappropriate class placement may signify a learning problem or a stressful experience. Some children may use pain to cope with such difficulties. To increase coping skills, caregivers may need to contact school personnel to develop a plan that might include special education services, tutoring, or assistance with organizational skills (4). Efforts should be made to minimize the chance of the plan failing, and procedures should be implemented that allow the child to make a smooth transition back to school.


Walker recommended that a graduated plan be implemented that incorporates as its ultimate optimal goal returning to school full time (4). This is suggested because some children, particularly those who have separation anxiety, will become distressed at any mention of returning to school. Walker acknowledged that, if children with recurrent pain are required to attend school the day following their medical evaluation, it is likely that they may manifest a severe pain episode that will serve to prevent or impede school attendance. As noted, an important first step in assisting children in their return to school is the identification of obstacles and addressing these specific issues and concerns (4,18). Walker also suggested that the health care provider consult with both the child and the caregiver to identify a manageable goal for initial attendance at school. The provider generally begins with the goal of a half-day return to school. If the child or caregiver notes concern, the time...


When rewards are given, parents should also provide verbal praise. Rewards should be given for each period of school attendance but should diminish over time as the behavior is more concretely in place. It is important that all care-givers be involved in the program, and that the program be reviewed on a regular basis for revision and to reflect accomplishments, new goals, and new rewards. Long-term goals should include sustained school attendance.

Telephone Systems

Computer telephony systems are useful in the completion of simple, straightforward tasks, such as collecting daily diary data and sending reminders to attend appointments, practice skills, or submit data. These tasks have predictable outcomes, and limited variance in vocabulary is expected. The advantage of this use of telephony to the patient or caregiver is that they can enter data at times convenient to them rather than adapting to the timetable of the coach or clinic. Computer telephony systems, such as NUANCE (11), can now be used to respond to more general queries using voice recognition and disambiguation software to identify the question and generate a response from either a database or from a list of set answers to frequently asked questions. Although the use of filters and passwords provides some protection for children accessing health information on the Web, private networks guarantee the level of security, privacy, and vetting of content in a way that gives caregivers...


A cornerstone of the treatment of CKD patients is the use of phosphate-binding agents. Aluminum is rarely used any more, but calcium, magnesium, and lanthanum-based agents all pose the possibility of chelation of drugs as well as the intended gastrointestinal phosphorus. Tetracycline chelation to antacids is well known to clinicians, but tetracycline is not used often in the CKD patient population. Of more importance to caregivers of CKD patients is the well-described drug interaction

Perioperative Pain

Death distress is usually more profound in young patients and appears to be inversely correlated to spiritual groundedness (101). Differing spiritual beliefs between the caregiver and the adolescent patient can be a cause of worsening distress. Health professionals are encouraged to be familiar and nonjudgmental of spiritual or religious beliefs of their patients (102).

Reactive Covariance

Keeping these constraints in mind, what is the nature of evidence linking variability in individual temperament to the characteristics of the individual's environment In regard to the question of reactive covariance, particularly during the first 2 years of life, some individual longitudinal studies have recorded evidence suggesting that variability in infant temperament influences subsequent parenting behavior. For example, Van den Boom and Hoeksma (1994) have found that over time mothers of irritable infants show less visual and physical contact, less effective stimulation, less involvement, and less responsivity to positive signals from their infants as compared to mothers of nonirritable infants. Similarly, in a controlled laboratory study, Lounsbury and Bates (1982) have reported that adult raters expressed more irritation at the cries of difficult temperament infants than they did to the cries of easy temperament infants. Going beyond parenting per se, Guerin et al. (2003) have...

Alzheimers Disease

All subjects were submitted to nutritional, neuropsychological, and functional evaluation. The results showed that only the interview and the checklist that explored caregiver burden predicted weight loss in AD patients, suggesting the possibility that caregivers who consider themselves overburdened by the disease process are not willing to invest adequate resources to allow AD patients to properly nourish themselves. Clinical observation, among AD patients, of periods of weight gain, periods of acute weight loss, and greater fluctuations in weight suggest that the natural history of weight change in AD may be characterised by dysfunction in body weight regulation. However, it remains a fundamental concept that a nutritional education program for caregivers of AD patients is the best way to prevent weight loss and improve the nutritional status of these patients.


Complete removal, or disconnection of one cerebral hemisphere, is indicated in patients with unilateral ictal onsets that are either multifocal or nonlocalizable to a single lobe associated with severe hemispheric dysfunction involving movement. Ideal candidates have already lost any usable function of the hand, particularly fine finger movements, and many are almost hemiplegic. The absence of a visual field deficit is not a contraindication to hemispherectomy as long as the patient and or primary caregivers are well-informed of the inevitable deficit and language function will relocate to the opposite hemisphere if the surgery is performed before the age of 10 and ideally before the age of 6. Outcomes can be excellent, with seizurefree rates of 60-70 in well selected candidates (77,78). Surgical procedures range from complete removal of the entire hemisphere to decortication or functional hemispherectomy. None of these procedures have been performed within an iMRI however, the latter...

Separation Anxiety

Separation anxiety refers to developmentally inappropriate and excessive anxiety concerning separation from home or from those to whom the child is attached (15). One symptom criterion for the diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder includes repeated complaints of physical symptoms (such as headaches or stomachaches, nausea or vomiting) when separation from major attachment figures occurs or is anticipated (p. 113). Typically, such symptoms occur on the morning of schooldays and are less pervasive on weekends when the child will not be separated from caregivers (4). Symptoms may reoccur on Sunday evening in anticipation of separation from caregivers to attend school on Monday. Often, caregivers of children with separation anxiety disorder have an enmeshed relationship with their children. Children may sleep with their parents and may sit very close to the parents during the interview (4). Both the caregiver and the child tend to perceive pain as so severe that it makes school...


The potential benefit from the combination of correlational and training studies is substantial. We may well learn, however, that no single variable, including role play, is by itself a strong predictor of theory of mind. Lillard's (2001a) twin earth model predicts as much suggesting that there are multiple determinants of theory of mind. Harris (in press) makes a related point by suggesting that research on role play forms a natural bridge with research on the pragmatic functions of language, particularly the conversations that children have with caregivers. Certain parental conversational styles, such as asking children to imagine how others feel, mirror the processes of imagining the perspective of others that unfold during role play. Together the two can form a virtuous circle that improves children's belief understanding as well as their appreciation of the feelings and emotions that make-up the social world they inhabit (Harris, in press). The search for multiple contributors to...

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