Cat Spraying What You Can Do

Cat Spray No More

Cat Spraying no more is a product that will guide the users on the way to prevent the various mess made by their cats. It is true that a cat that pees in the house can make their home smell like a litter box; it can be upsetting and stressful for the users and can become incredibly expensive if the users are forced to continually clean carpets and floors, or replace furniture. However, Cat Spraying No More is one that will help in the reduction of these problems because it will point the users towards the right things to do and what not to do as regards their cats. This product will stop their cat peeing and spraying outside the litter box for good. This professionally created and proven system will work whether their cat has just started peeing where they should not or if they've been doing it for years. This product is a cheap one that can be learnt by anyone. It comes with certain bonuses that will change the way the users see things as regards cat. They are Cat Training Bible, 101 Recipes for a Healthy Cat, The Cat Care Blueprint, Pet Medical Recorder Software. More here...

Cat Spray No More Summary

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4.8 stars out of 36 votes

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Author: Sarah Richards
Official Website: www.catsprayingnomore.com
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Cat Spray Stop

Susan Westinghouse is the creator of the cat spray stop program. She is an avid veterinarian and cat expert with lots of years of experience. She claims that the guide offers a broad outline and precise approaches targeted at preventing your cat from spraying, despite your cat's stubborn or persistent personality. According to her, it contains the exclusive TTS Taste, Touch, Smell method for pinning the issue, therefore the guide works to stop the cat from spraying and discourages him to ever repeat the bad behavior in the future. It is an e-book that comes with two bonuses attached to it. The first bonus is a nutritional program that will help your cat lose unnecessary weight, while the second bonus is an essential oil recipe for cats that will help to reduce their stress level. This program is suitable for any owner who lives with a cat that has bad litter box habits and often sprays. Susane Westinghouse's guide is characterized by ease of use and it contains a ton of helpful tips that make the process a lot easier both for you and your furry companion. The program is spread across six chapters that take you through a comprehensive tour in how you can solve this annoying problem now, while also learning how to keep it from coming back to haunt you later on in the future. More here...

Cat Spray Stop Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Susan Westinghouse
Price: $37.00

Pathways in the Anterolateral Quadrant

Transection of the ventral quadrant of the spinal cord in the dog raised the threshold for cutaneous nociception (20) this observation was used as an experimental basis for the introduction of cordotomy as a treatment of pain in humans (21). Several investigators have found that ventrolateral cordotomy produced somatic analgesia on the side contralateral to the lesion in monkeys (22-24). It is interesting, however, that reactions to painful stimuli applied to one side of the body in cats are not prevented by hemisecting the contralateral cord (25,26). Even a bilateral lesion often fails to prevent reactions to noxious stimuli in cats (27). The discrepancies between the observations reported in the cat and those reported in the dog may be due to a more prominent STT in the latter (28).

Categorization of Humans

To investigate whether young infants represent humans as a category that is differentiated from nonhuman animal species, Quinn and Eimas (1998) familiarized a group of 3- to 4-month-old infants with photographic exemplars of 12 humans, both men and women, depicted in a variety of standing, running, or walking poses, and in earth tone (i.e., nonpastel) clothing. Each infant was then tested with a novel human paired with a cat, and a different novel human paired with a horse. The expectation was that infants would in each case prefer the novel instance of the novel category (i.e., novel cat or horse) over the novel instance from the familiar human category. To the investigators' surprise, the infants did not prefer novel cats or horses to novel humans. It is possible that an a priori preference for humans could have interfered with novel category preferences for cats and horses, but a control experiment pairing humans with cats and humans with horses over a series of spontaneous...

Category Representations of Humans versus Nonhuman Animals Exemplars versus Prototypes

An additional experiment conducted by Quinn and Eimas (1998) provided further evidence that infants represent humans differently from nonhuman animal species. Because 3- to 4-month-olds have greater exposure to human than to nonhuman animals, even if the set of humans is limited to parents or immediate family members, it is an arguable consequence that infants represent the highly familiar human exemplars individually. Also plausible is the view that the less frequently encountered animals are represented by means of a summary prototype (Quinn, 1987). To investigate these possibilities, one group of 3- to 4-month-olds was familiarized with 12 humans, and another with 12 cats. Both groups were administered two preference tests. A novel cat was paired with a novel human in one (the test of categorization), and a novel member of the familiar category was paired with a familiar member of the familiar category in the other (a test of exemplar memory). The results revealed a significant...

Perceptual Cues for a Category Representation of Humans

Experiment followed from the investigation of whether infants formed category representations for nonhuman animal species based on information from the whole animal, head, or body (Quinn & Eimas, 1996a). Three- and 4-month-old infants were familiarized with 12 exemplars of humans or 12 exemplars of cats, and tested with a novel human versus a novel cat. Within the human and cat conditions, the infants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups Whole Animal, Head Only, and Body Only. In the Whole Animal Group, infants were familiarized and tested with entire, intact stimuli (head + body). In the Head Only group, only the heads of the stimuli were visible the body information had been occluded. In the Body Only group, only the bodies of the stimuli were visible the head information had been occluded. Examples of the stimuli are presented in Figure 5.8. The particular form of the asymmetry, a category representation for cats that excludes humans and a category...

Historical Perspectives

Since the early pioneering work in this field, a number of other oncogenic viruses have been identified and characterized. These include (1) feline leukemia virus, shown by inoculation of cell-free extracts from leukemic cats into newborn kittens (2) SV40 virus, shown to be latent and harmless in the rhesus monkey but to induce leukemias and sarcomas after inoculation into newborn hamsters (3) adenoviruses, which

Biochemical Bases of AR of the Cortical EP

I have discussed how the A-R of the EP is related to sensation seeking and analogous behavior in cats and rats. It is interesting, therefore, that visual EP augmenters tend to have low MAO levels and low levels of 5-HIAA (the 5-HT metabolite) in CSF (Von Knorring & Pervin, 1981). They also found lower levels of dopamine-beta-hydroxlase (DBH) in augmenters. DBH is the enzyme that converts dopamine to NE, and therefore low DBH is consistent with the lowered levels of NE found along with low levels of DBH in high sensation seekers (Ballenger et al., 1983).

Correlations with Cognition

Although correlations between the age-related defects in the structure of the myelin and conduction velocity have not been examined, there have been several studies of the effects of age on conduction velocity in old animals. For example, Aston-Jones 69 examined the conduction velocity along nerve fibers connecting nucleus basalis to frontal cortex in rats and found a significant reduction in conduction velocity in old animals. Similarly, Morales et al. 70 have shown a reduction in conduction velocity of lumbar motor neurons in the spinal cords of cats, and Xi et al. 71 have shown a reduction in conduction velocity along nerve fibers in the pyramidal tracts of old cats. Interestingly, in proteolipid deficient mice, in which

Molecular Similaritydiversity

Cahart et al. (24) introduced the concept of atom-pairs, where the topological distance (number of bonds) between atoms of specified element type are encoded in a bit string. This was extended to the topological torsion (25), where elements on all paths of length four are encoded. Kearsley et al. (26) extended this approach to use more generic atom-type properties in place of element type. They termed these types binding property classes because they represent key features of intermolecular interactions (positiveand negative charge hy -drogen bond donor, hydrogen bond acceptor, and groups that are both of these, such as hy-droxyl hydrophobic atoms and all others). These descriptors have been used widely for similarity- and diversity-related tasks. The CATS descriptors of Schneider et al. (27a) are a variant on this approach. All topological distances (number of bonds) between a pair of binding property classes (e.g., acid-base) in a molecule are recorded with count information in a...

H2Receptor Antagonists H2recep

Tors and the prototype Hz-receptor antagonist burimamide were identified in a single paper by Black et al. (69). Burimamide was reported to inhibit both HA- and pentagastrin-stimu-lated gastric acid secretion in rats, dogs, cats, and humans. The potency of burimamide at inhibiting gastric acid secretion far exceeded that produced by anticholinergic drugs and was devoid of apparent side effects. Burimam-ide, however, had poor oral bioavailability and was subsequently replaced by metiamide, which was 10-fold more potent and its activity could be detected after oral administration (68).

Kinetic Distribution Volumes Of Fluids

Should be used to adjust calculations. In some experimental animals such as dogs, cats and sheep, the hemoglobin concentration may be raised by stress-induced release of erythrocytes stored in the splenic reservoir. In contrast, this effect in humans is negligible (Ebert and Stead,

Distensiontension Sensitive Afferents

Recordings from the pelvic nerve in rat colon show similar findings to those seen in the pelvic nerves of cats. Distension-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents can be classified into dynamic responses, which displayed slow adaptation (45 ) or tonic nonadapting (55 ) responses (64). These phasic afferents were only transiently excited during filling or emptying of the colon, whereas tonic afferents were discharged throughout the distension stimulus. These afferents could be subclassified as low threshold, responding to 10 mmHg or less (77 ), or high threshold, responding to greater than 28 mmHg (23 ).

Screening Models and Activity

N. americanus and Ancylostoma ceylanicum are the hookworm parasite of man and both can be maintained in hamsters. N. americanus has been forced to parasitize rodents.26 On the other hand, A. ceylanicum, being a parasite of dog, cat and man, has a wider host range and is easy to maintain in hamsters without the use of immunosuppressants.27,28 The host infectivity is almost 100 .29 The test extract and standard drug in appropriate doses are fed to groups of infected hamsters in single or multiple doses by keeping separate infected group as untreated control. The efficacy assay is made on autopsy of animals on day two of the last medication, and the worm count of the treated group are compared with those of the untreated group. The efficacy is expressed either in terms of host clearance or of percent worm reduction in respect to untreated controls. The secondary screening is conducted in dogs and cats.27 Besides, testing is carried out against human filarial worm Brugia malayi in...

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Although the Origin was much shorter than the book Darwin had planned to write, it was still a substantial volume of more than 400 pages. In it, Darwin discussed subjects as diverse as pigeon breeders, fossil fish, Russian cockroaches, icebergs, and the subtle ecological relationship that links cats, mice, bees, and red clover. He drew upon 20 years of reading, observing, collecting, and experimenting in geology, anatomy, botany, and zoology to make two main points. The first point was that species evolve and are adapted to fit their circumstances. (Darwin was still using the term descent with modification he did not use evolution until the sixth edition of the Origin, in 1872). The second point was that natural selection, which favors the organisms that are best equipped to survive and reproduce, is the primary mechanism by which new species are slowly formed

Edward Lee Thorndike 18741949

Thorndike was always intrigued with animal behavior. While at Harvard, his landlady became upset because he was raising chickens in his bedroom. By this time, James and Thorndike were good friends, and Thorndike moved his experiments to the basement of James' house when he could not get laboratory space at Harvard. He continued his research and supported himself by tutoring students for 2 years at Harvard. Then Thorndike moved to Columbia University, where he studied with James McKeen Cattell, the famous expert on intelligence testing. Thorndike took two of his smartest chickens with him to Columbia but soon switched to investigating the behavior of cats. At Columbia University, Thorndike began his famous experiments on trial-and-error learning in cats. Animals were placed in what Thorndike called a puzzle box, and food was placed outside the box. A cat that struggled to get out of the box would accidentally step on a treadle, pull a string, and so on. These responses resulted in...

Operant Conditioning

Thorndike Puzzle Box

Operant conditioning refers to either an increase or a decrease in operant behavior as a function of a contingency of reinforcement. In a simple demonstration of operant conditioning, an experimenter may alter the consequences that follow operant behavior. The effects of environmental consequences on behavior were first described in 1911 by the American psychologist E. L. Thorndike, who reported results from a series of animal experiments that eventually formed the basis of operant conditioning. Cats, dogs, and chicks were placed in situations in which they could obtain food by performing complex sequences of behavior. For example, hungry cats were confined to an apparatus that Thorndike called a puzzle box, shown in Fig. 4.4. Food was placed outside the box, and if the cat managed to pull out a bolt, step on a lever, or emit some other behavior, the door would open and the animal could eat the food. After some time in the box, the cat would accidentally pull the bolt or step on the...

Pathways in the Dorsal Funiculus

Early experimental evidence that described the dorsal column as the pathway of splanchnic afferents was obtained in rabbits, cats, and dogs (81) and led to the conclusion that the sense of visceral distension may be dependent on the integrity of this afferent projection system. Responses to splanchnic nerve stimulation were recorded ''in logical time relationships,'' in the ipsilateral fasciculus gracilis of the spinal cord, the ipsilateral nucleus gracilis, the region of decussation of the medial lemniscus, the medial lemniscus at various levels in the medulla, pons and caudal thalamus, and in the VPL nucleus of the thalamus, suggesting a continuous pathway for splanchnic input that ''parallels that for proprioception from the limbs and trunk'' (82). Nociceptive activity, including responses to uterine and vaginal distension, has also been demonstrated in neurons of the dorsal column nuclei (65,83-86). These nociceptive responses could be triggered by unmyelinated primary afferent...

Synopsis Of The Novel

Not make his wife feel loved or offer her hope for a better future. He remains commerce-driven and loveless, obsessed with writing the perfect novel. The journalist Rambert asks Dr. Rieux to certify him plague-free so he can leave the city to join his lover. Rieux, taking an ethical, moralistic stance, cannot oblige. Sending patients into quarantine, separated from loved ones, and witnessing daily suffering and pain cause Rieux to harden his heart. A Week of Prayer culminates in Father Paneloux's fiery sermon. Citing Exodus in the Bible, he preaches that plague is a deserved scourge sent as punishment for their sins, just as God had brought plagues down on Egypt to strike down the enemies of God and to humble the proud of heart. It will separate out evildoers, or the wheat from the chaff. Salvation, he concludes, only comes to repentant sinners who embrace God's teachings. Paneloux's sermon creates widespread panic among the condemned, especially when a new form of bacillus, pneumonic...

Orienting and Defensive Reflexes

Hypac Hormonal Axis

This kind of finding raises questions about the more molecular mechanisms underlying the psychophysiological phenomena. Such questions can be more easily addressed if the paradigm can be applied to other species of animals. Siegel and his colleagues applied the paradigm to cats and found that augmenter cats were more active, exploratory, and aggressive than reducer cats, and more likely to approach than to withdraw from novel stimuli (Lukas & Siegel, 1977 Saxton, Siegel, & Lukas, 1987). Saxton and colleagues (1987) tested their cats in controlled learning experiments. One experiment involved responding on a fixed-interval (FI) barpressing task with food as a reward, and the other was differential reinforcement for a low rate of response (DRL). The FI task merely required an adjustment to the novel test chamber and the maintenance of a high rate of response. The DRL task, however, required inhibition or modulation of response rate. Cats that were augmenters did well on the FI...

Comparison of the Effect Size of Circadian Rhythmicity with That of Other Biological and Physical Phenomena

Whose daily activity patterns have been well described include rabbits,198-200 cats,201,202 dogs,203,204 sheep,205,206 horses,207 208 tree shrews,209 210 various marsupials,211-214 and other species.215-224 Many studies have been conducted on primates,225-240 including humans.241-250

Sex Differences In Neural Correlates Of Orgasm

A parallel with the differential roles of the amygdala in male appetitive (precopulatory) versus consummatory (copulatory) sexual responses highlighted in previous animal studies is suggested by a PET study of brain activity in men during consummatory sexual behavior elicited by tactile stimulation by a female partner (Holstege et al., 2003). Relative to a resting baseline, consummatory male sexual behavior (erection and orgasm) elicited decreased activity in only one brain region, the amygdala, bilaterally during erection and in the left amygdala during orgasm. Thus, whereas viewing appetitive sexual stimuli by males in the Hamann and colleagues (2004) study elicited highly localized increases in amygdala activation, consummatory sexual behavior elicited correspondingly focal deactivations in the amygdala. In contrast to the neuroimaging studies of responses to visual sexual stimuli, where no areas of greater activation were found for females, a recent PET study of brain activation...

Categorization of Animal Species and Artifacts

Child Development Categorization

In a series of studies, young infants have been shown to form category representations for a variety of animal species and furniture artifacts (reviewed in Quinn, 2002c). In the experiments investigating young infants' category representations of various animal species, 3- and 4-month-olds familiarized with instances of 12 domestic cats, representing different breeds and depicted in a variety of stances, will generalize familiarization to novel instances of domestic cats, but show novel category preferences for birds, dogs, horses, tigers, and even female lions (Eimas & Quinn, 1994 Eimas, Quinn, & Cowan, 1994 Quinn, Eimas, & Rosenkrantz, 1993). Examples of the cats and dogs are shown in Figure 5.7. In addition, same-aged infants familiarized with 12 horses will generalize to novel horses, but display novel category preferences for cats, giraffes, and zebras (Eimas & Quinn, 1994). These findings indicate that young infants can form separate representations for cats and...

Cholinergic Toxicity

Mechanism Ach Hydrolysis Ache

Rats exposed to low doses (one ninth the LD50) of sarin produced alterations in motor coordination balance.85 Cholinesterase inhibition induced by continuous infusion of PYR (for at least 3 days before soman exposure and continuing through the exposure period) had little effect on the toxicity of repeated soman exposure in the rodents.86 More importantly, there was no deleterious effects of PYR pretreatment and concomitant low-level exposure to soman. The cumulative effects of repeated soman exposure on serum ChE and the relatively insignificant impact of additional PYR exposure are illustrated by the convergence of ChE inhibition levels by the fifth day, regardless of treatment condition.87 Low doses of sarin (3.5 g kg for 10 days or 7.0 g kg for 5 days, s.c.) and soman (2.5 g kg for 10 days or 5.0 g kg for 5 days) resulted in a depression of mechano receptors, conduction velocities of muscle spindle, and mechano receptor afferents in cats.88 These authors suggested that alteration...

Vegetative Hyphal Fusion in Filamentous Fungi

The formation of channels between fungal hyphae by self fusion is a defining feature of fdamentous fungi and results in the fungal colony being a complex interconnected network of hyphae. During the vegetative phase hyphal fusions are commonly formed during colony establishment by specialized conidial anastomosis tubes (CATs) and then later by specialized fusion hyphae in the mature colony. CAT induction, homing and fusion in Neurospora crassa provides an excellent model in which to study the process of vegetative hyphal fusion because it is simple and experimentally very amenable. Various mutants compromised in hyphal fusion have been isolated and characterized. Although the self-signalling ligand(s) involved in CAT induction and homing has have not been identified, MAP kinase signalling is downstream of the initial ligand-receptor interacdon(s), and has features in common with MAP kinase signalling during mating cell interactions in the budding yeast and during fungal infection...

Cat Induction Cat Homing

Was shown to correlate with the onset of fusion between conidial germlings during colony establishment.17 The downstream target of these MAP kinases seems to be the transcription factor, pp-1 which is an ortholog of the budding yeast ste-12.7's'21 HAM-2, a putative transmembrane protein of unknown function, 2 has also been implicated in CAT inducuon because it is unable to form CATs.11 CATs home towards each other. CAT homing has been shown to involve the secretion and reception of a chemoattractant at CAT tips of Neurospora by using optical tweezers as a novel experimental tool to move spores or germlings relative to each other.11 The identities of the CAT inducer and CAT chemoattractant are unknown, but conceivably could be the same self-signalling ligand. However, it is known that neither signalling molecule is cAMP in Neurospora because CATs form and home in a mutant that lacks cAMP.11 Another Neurospora gene, so encodes a protein which plays a role in the biochemical machinery...

Parenteral anaesthetic drugs

Dempsey et al54 measured cerebral blood flow in cats after the release of middle cerebral artery occlusion. In cats anaesthetised by pentobarbital, pre-treatment with indometacin (indomethacin) resulted in increased postischaemic cerebral blood flow compared with cats that did not receive indometacin pre-treatment. In cats anaesthetised by ketamine, pre-treatment with indometacin did not affect postischaemic cerebral blood flow.

Scientific Foundations

Many traits of living things are partly set by the DNA (deoxyribo-nucleic acid) molecules that pass on genetic information from one generation to the next. Most DNA is divided up into short lengths or units called genes. The genetic code or recipe for a plant or animal is built of genes much as a sentence is built of words. But most individuals even of the same species, such as cats, people, or wheat, do not have exactly the same genes. When some individuals reproduce more than others, the genes carried by those individuals tend to become more common in the group. This is how selective breeding and natural selection change the character of a group over generations.

Mechanisms of anaesthetic effects on the microcirculation

Nitrous oxide has been shown to activate the sympathetic nervous system, as evidenced by increased splanchnic nerve activity when N2O was administered to cats receiving The increase in vascular resistance and the decrease in blood flow to the splanchnic viscera are consistent with the increase in sympathetic nerve activity seen in the splanchnic nerve of cats, and suggests that the effects of N2O in the splanchnic viscera can be attributed to an 6 Helfaer MA, Kirsch JR, Traystman RJ. Anesthetic modulation of cerebral hemodynamic and evoked responses to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in cats. Stroke 1990 21 795-800. 54 Dempsey RJ, Roy MW, Meyer KL, Donaldson DL. Indomethacin-mediated improvement following middle cerebral artery occlusion in cats. J Neurosurg 1985 62 874-81.

Other Gastric Helicobacter Species

In addition to H. pylori, there are five named, two proposed, and three uncultured Helicobacter species that have been identified in the stomach of different animal species (for review see ref. 1). Helicobacter mustelae causes gastroduodenal disease in its natural host the ferret (3), and provided the first animal model system that allowed for the study of host-to-host transmission, chronic gastritis, immunity, eradication, and candidate bacterial virulence determinants (using isogenic mutants) of a gastric Helicobacter species. Helicobacter felis naturally infects dogs and cats (9). It is probably not the most common gastric Helicobacter species in these hosts, and it is not clear how important it is as a cause of canine and feline gastroduodenal disease, but it was fortuitously found to readily infect the stomach of laboratory mice (for review see ref. 10). The rodent model of H. felis has been extensively utilized to investigate chronic gastritis, gastric atrophy (parietal cell...

Emergence of Enterohepatic Helicobacter Species as Human Pathogens

Of the urease-negative enterohepatic Helicobacter species without periplasmic fibers associated with human disease (for reviews see refs. 1 and 21), Helicobacter cinaedi and Helicobacter fennelliae (53,54) have been isolated from the rectum of homosexual men with or without proctitis, from individuals with diarrhea or bacteremia, and from a variety of animal species, including monkeys and cats (H. cinaedi) and hamsters and dogs (both H. cinaedi and H. fennelliae). Helicobacter canis (55), Helicobacter pullorum (56), and Helicobacter canadensis (57) have all been isolated from humans with diarrhea and from animals, including dogs and cats (H. canis), chickens (H. pullorum), and geese (H. canadensis). H. pullorum has also been identified by PCR in cases of human biliary tract disease.

Tissue oxygenation and hemodilution

In normal animals under hyperoxic conditions, dosing with Oxygent was associated with a significant improvement in oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption in a dog model of maximally working isolated skeletal muscle (Hogan et al., 1992), and with an increase in plasma oxygen solubility and tissue PO2 in both dog skeletal muscle (Gayeski et al., 1994) and cat retina (Braun et al., 1992) even when using low doses of Oxygent (e.g. 0.9 g PFC kg). Oxygent has been shown in various studies to deliver oxygen to support metabolic processes, which correlate with improved organ function in critical tissues, including brain and heart. In the brain of normal awake rabbits (van Rossem et al., 1997) and anesthetized cats (Padnick et al., 1999), Oxygent dosing markedly enhanced cerebral cortical PO2 above levels achieved with oxygen-breathing alone. In a model of partial brain stem ischemia in dogs using transient basilar artery occlusion following dosing with Oxygent, Guo et al. (1995) demonstrated...

Imitation in the Laboratory

This conclusion stalled experiments on animal imitation for some time. Then Herbert and Harsh (1944) reported that cats could learn to solve manipulative problems by observation if they observed mistakes as well as successful performances. Cats that observed both mistakes and correct responses by a model did better at problems than ones that only watched skillful performance. When many alternative responses are available, seeing what does and does not work is necessary for observational learning (see Biederman & Vanayan, 1988, for a similar effect with pigeons).

Animals and Kidney Transplants

As with many other areas of medical research, the first organ transplants were done using animals to see if the techniques worked before trying them out on humans. A French researcher named Alexis Carrel (1973-1944) used cats and dogs to develop a method of joining blood vessels. This method was needed to successfully transplant organs from one person to another. Then Carrel tried transplanting organs from one animal to another. These

Conjugated Hemoglobin

An alternative approach to prolongation of the plasma retention is to conjugate hemoglobin to a larger molecule. This was first done by coupling hemoglobin to dextran (Tam et al., 1976 Chang and Wong, 1977 Blumenstein et al., 1978). The coupling reaction is carried out using a lysate of human red cells and bromodextran, molecular weight 20 kDa. The product was shown to support life in the absence of red cells in dogs and cats (Humphries et al., 1981), and it did not appear to be immunogenic (Cunnington et al., 1981). Because the oxygen affinity of dextran-hemoglobin was essentially that of hemoglobin, it was modified further by covalently linking an analog of inositol hexaphosphate (IHP) (Wong, 1988 Wu et al., 1989). This new derivative had a P50 of 55mmHg (compared to 23mmHg) for dextran-hemoglobin, and the oxygenation curve showed cooperativity. These modifications were demonstrated to reduce renal toxicity of unpuri-fied hemoglobin.

Attempts to Restore Visual Function after Optic Nerve Damage in Adult Mammals

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons, i.e., optic nerve (ON) fibers, provide a good experimental model for research on damaged CNS neurons and their functional recovery. After the ON transection most RGCs undergo retrograde and anterograde degeneration but they can be rescued and regenerated by transplantation of a piece of peripheral nerve (PN). When the nerve graft was bridged to the visual center, regenerating RGC axons can restore the central visual projection. Behavioral recovery of relatively simple visual function has been proved in such PN-grafted rodents. Intravitreal injections of various neurotrophic factors and cytokines to activate intracellular signaling mechanism of RGCs and electrical stimulation to the cut end of ON have promoting effects on their survival and axonal regeneration. Axotomized RGCs in adult cats are also shown to survive and regenerate their axons through the PN graft. Among the cat RGC types, Y cells, which function as visual motion detector,...

Approach To Bites And Stings Insect Stings Local Reactions

Nearly 5 million animal bites occur in the United States each year. The most common animals involved are dogs, cats, and humans. Many different bacteria can be involved in bite wound infections. Both cats and dogs can carry staphylococci, streptococci, anaerobic species, and Pasteurella species. Humans carry staphylococci, streptococci. Haemophilus species, Eikenella species, and anaerobes.

Within Task Learning versus Previously Acquired Knowledge

The latter view would have it that the format of the familiarization novelty-preference procedure better lends itself to an interpretation that can be understood in terms of category formation. Infants are presumed to construct the category representation as more and more exemplars from the familiar category are presented (Mareschal, French, & Quinn, 2000). Even by this reasoning, however, it is difficult to completely rule out the possibility that knowledge access does not facilitate the performance of the participating infants. Consider, for example, 3- to 4-month-olds presented with cats or horses and then tested with exemplars from contrasting animal categories such as birds, dogs, tigers, giraffes, and zebras. Given that young infants are not likely to have observed (at least directly) animals such This issue of whether the experiments are investigations into category formation or possession has been addressed in two ways. First, because a number of studies conducted by Quinn...

Spinothalamic Tract

The cells of origin of the STT have been mapped in monkeys, cats, and rats (31). It may be safe to assume that the pattern in monkeys is closest to that in human organization. In monkeys, a large fraction of STT cells is located in the lumbar and sacral enlargements, and these cells are concentrated in the marginal zone and neck of the dorsal horn in laminae I and IV to VI (36,37). However, some spinothalamic cells are located in other laminae, including lamina X, which is around the central canal, and in the ventral horn. Comparison of the populations of STT cells projecting to the lateral thalamus, including the ventral posterior lateral (VPL) nucleus, and those projecting to the medial thalamus, including the central lateral nucleus, show clear differences between the two (36). Laterally projecting spinothalamic neurons are more likely to be situated in laminae I and V, whereas medially projecting cells are more likely to be situated in the deep dorsal horn and in the ventral horn....

Fragrances

Petrochemically derived raw materials. Naturally occurring musks include the macrocyclic lactones found in some plants such as ambrette seed oil and galbanum, and the keto musks produced by some animals such as musk deet and civet cats which tend to be difficult or unacceptable raw material sources.

Case

A 35-year-old female with a history of asthma presents to your office with symptoms of nasal itching, sneezing, and rhinorrhea. She states she feels this way most days but her symptoms are worse in the spring and fall. She has had difficulty sleeping because she is always congested. She states she has taken diphenhydramine (Benadryl) with no relief. She does not smoke cigarettes and does not have exposure to passive smoke but she does have 2 cats at home. On examination, she appears tired but is in no respiratory distress. Her vital signs are temperature, 98.8 F blood pressure, 128 84 mm Hg pulse, 88 beats min respiratory rate, 18 breaths min. The mucosa of her nasal turbinates appear swollen (boggy) and have a pale, bluish-gray color. Thin and watery secretions are seen. No abnormalities are seen on ear examination. There is no cervical lymphadenopathy noted and her lungs are clear.

Structure

These fibrillar composites form larger structures, fibers, and fiber bundles, which then pack into lamellar-type units that can be observed with both SEM and optical microscopy. This is the third, or microstructural level of organization. Figure 4 shows two such types of lamellar organizations (5). Figure 4a illustrates the circular (or nearly circular) lamellar units forming the secondary osteons (Haversian systems) found in mature human bone. Figure 4b shows the straight lamellar units forming the plexiform (lamellar) bone found generally in young quadruped animals the size of cats and larger. This is the structural level that is being described when the term bone tissue is used or when histology is generally being discussed. At this level, composite analysis can also be introduced to model the elastic properties of the tissue, thus providing an understanding of the macroscopic properties of bone (i.e., those associated with the behavior of the whole bone, or fourth level of...

Mammals

The placental mammals include many familiar animals, such as rabbits, deer, dogs, cats, bats, whales, monkeys, and humans. These mammals have a placenta a nutritive connection between the embryo and the mother's uterine wall. Embryos are attached to the placenta, and they complete their development within the mother's uterus.

Discussion

Using cervical electrical stimulation and selective lesions, numerous investigators have reported that the descending vasomotor pathways are localized within extensive areas from ventral to dorsal in the peripheral aspects of the lateral funiculus in cats and monkeys (Kerr and Alexander, 1964 Illert and Gabriel, 1972 Foreman and Wurster, 1973). Barman and Wurster (1975) demonstrated that the descending sympathetic pathways are situated on the surface of the dorsolateral funiculus and are organized in a dorsal-to-ventral manner based on electrical stimulation in dogs. Lebedev et al. (1986) carried out an electrophys-iological study before and after the dorsolateral funiculus transection showing that descending vasomotor pathways are situated within the dorsal parts of the lateral funiculus in cats, the area which corresponds to Area I in our investigation.

Education

A critical aspect of development, particularly in higher mammals, is the limited, deliberately controlled exposure to progressively more complicated stimuli, and intelligent responses thereto, that characterizes the early phases of an animal's life (which in cats, might occupy a few weeks whereas in humans it occupies tens of years which is often not enough ). During this development period, the sequence of exposure of the animal to information is in some manner controlled (often by confining the animal to a particular limited range, such as a nest, home, or school and its immediate surround).

A1 Introduction

The term cognition, as used in this Appendix, is not meant to encompass all aspects of mentation. It is restricted to (roughly) those functions carried out by the human cerebral cortex and thalamus. Cognition is a big part of mentation for certain vertebrate species (primates, cats, dogs, parrots, ravens, etc.), but only a minor part for others (fish, reptiles, etc.). Frog cognition exists, but is a minor part of frog mentation. In humans, cognition is the part of mentation of which we are, generally, most proud and most want to imitate in machines.

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