Diagnostic Confirmation of Metastatic MTC

In patients with MTC, calcitonin provides a unique tumour marker and levels should be monitored regularly following total thyroidectomy. In a report of 123 patients with MTC treated by total thyroidectomy, postoperative calcitonin levels were low or non-detectable when MTC was confined to the thyroid gland (67 ). In contrast only 8 ofpatients had low calcitonin levels when extrathyroidal spread was present (57). Further reports suggest that calcitonin levels rarely return to zero following...

Conclusions

In recent years, great strides have been made in our understanding of metastasis as it relates to prostate cancer. This can only improve our clinical management of early, organ-confined disease, as we increasingly understand the biological determinants of significant as opposed to latent disease. More problematic will be the effective treatment of established metastatic disease, but several avenues of exploration have been discussed here. Effective anti-angiogenic agents, modulators of hormone...

Bone Marrow Micrometastasis In Breast Cancer

Ninety-five percent of patients who present with breast cancer apparently have local disease without evidence of distant metastatic spread on pretreatment staging by conventional methods (1). Despite improvements in surgical techniques, radiotherapy and drug treatment, one third of all patients relapse and die within ten years, and this proportion has not changed significantly. It is accepted that this group of patients has micrometastatic disease at presentation that cannot be detected by...

Role Of Integrins In Proliferation

Ligation of integrins can activate signalling pathways which are also activated by growth factors and mitogens. For example soluble mitogens stimulate the tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins associated with focal adhesions including FAK, paxillin and p130CAS (89, 90). The ability of integrins to promote proliferation, as discussed below, is likely to be through co-operative signalling with growth factors. However the potential level of contribution of integrin-dependent signalling to...

Animal Studies On Pufas And Cancer Metastasis

Over the past decades, there have been a series of reports, whether intentionally or incidentally, showing that manipulating EFAs in cancer bearing animals may have important impact on the development of cancer metastasis. This has yielded some interesting, but sometimes controversial results There have been extensive research on the possible role of fatty acids in the development of breast cancer. However, the conclusions have been controversial. Fritsche and Johnston (91) determined whether...

Info

Effect of 103 dietary alpha-linolenic acid on growth, metastasis, fatty acid profile and prostaglandin production of two murine mammary adenocarcinomas. J Nutr 1990 92 Buckman DK, Chapkin RS, Erickson KL. 104 Modulation of mouse mammary tumor growth and linoleate enhanced metastasis by oleate. J Nutr 1990 , 120 148-57. 93 Eynard AR. Role of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFA on 105 tumorigenesis. Cancer J 9 142-144, 1996. 94 Eynard AR, Manzur T, Moyano A,...

Tight Junctions A Critical Structure In The Control Of Cancer Invasion And Metastasis

Jiang, Tracey Martin, Iraj Llaffafian, Robert E. Mansel Key words Tight endothelium,brainblood barrier BBB . Abstract Tightjunction is the apical most structure in epithelium as well as in the endothelium. Its main function is to control the paracellular diffusion of ions and certain molecules. Although the structure has been known for decades, the molecular composition of the tight junction has only been recognised in the past decade. Molecules making up tight junctions include the...