T-cell lymphoid malignancies represent a heterogeneous group of relatively rare diseases that are defined as distinct entities by a constellation of laboratory and clinical features, including morphologic features, immunophenotype, genetic features, clinical manifestation, and clinical course. Recent classification attempts have considered mature T-cell malignancies as separate entities, with site of disease presentation being an important part of disease behavior. Excluding rare exceptions such as ALCL, our knowledge regarding disease pathophysiology, prognostic factors, and disease-specific molecular features is still incomplete, due to their relative rarity and heterogeneity. Also, except for ALCL and certain CTCL, T-cell tumors often have systemic involvement, are generally aggressive, and are relatively refractory to currently available treatments. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify novel molecular targets on T-cell malignancies for future therapy, which may also serve as potential prognostic markers for selected disease subsets. For most T-cell lymphoid malignancies, available treatment modalities have included conventional combination chemotherapy, often with anthracycline-containing regimens, resulting in rather disappointing results in terms of response rate, response duration, and overall

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