P = NS unless otherwise specified.

AMP, doxorubicin, ranimustine, and prednisone; CV'P, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, and prednisolone; CHOP, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednsiolone or prednisone; CHOP/VP-16/MCNU/mito, CHOP followed by etoposide, ranimustine, and mitoxantrone; COP, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone; DOEP, daily oral etoposide and prednisolone; F/U, follow-up; IT, intrathecal methotrexate and cytarabine; LSG4, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, vindesine, methotrexate, etoposide, procarbazine, and bleomycin; MACOP-B, methotrexate, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone, and bleomycin; M-FEPA, methotrexate, vindesine, cyclophosphamide, prednisolone, and doxorubicin; NR, not reported; OPEC/MPEC, vincristine or methotrexate, prednisolone, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide; PBSCT, peripheral blood stem cell transplant; RCM, response-oriented cyclic multidrug protocol (i.e., cyclophosphamide, prednisolone, vindesine, and ranimustine (week 1) followed by cyclophosphamide, prednisolone, methotrexate, and pirarubicin (week 2), cyclophosphamide, prednisolone, etoposide, peplomycin, and cytarabine (week 3), and cyclophosphamide, prednisolone, mitomycin C, and doxorubicin (week 4); VCAP, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisolone; VECP, vindesine, etoposide, carboplatin, and prednisolone; VEPA, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, prednisolone, and doxorubicin; VEPA-B, VEPA and bleomycin; VEPA-M, VEPA and methotrexate; VEPP-B, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, procarbazine, prednisolone, and doxorubicin.

a Median age not reported; bfor ATL patients treated with both VEPA and VEPA-M; c etoposide, interferon alpha, interferon gamma, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone, or other single agent; dfor all 854 patients (including 137 untreated patients); eincludes 51 chronic and 11 smouldering subtypes; ffor acute vs lymphoma subtype; gexcept for one acute ATL patient who received single-agent cyclophosphamide, one lymphoma subtype supportive care only, and one chronic ATL topical therapy for skin disease (two patients also received PBSCT); h includes one chronic subytype; i includes patients with acute (n = 51), lymphoma (n = 22), and progressive chronic (n = 14) ATL; j mean; k includes 14 chronic subtypes; l includes 10 chronic subtypes.

whether undetectable minimal residual disease is associated with improved relapse-free survival and OS.

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