Introduction

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the process of infusing hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, which are used primarily to restore normal hematopoiesis or to treat malignancy.1-3 The term HSCT has replaced the relatively archaic term bone marrow transplantation for two specific reasons. First, the stem and progenitor cells used in HSCT can be obtained from a variety of sources other than the bone marrow, including the peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood.4 It is more important to characterize HSCT according to where the stem cells used for transplantation are derived. The use of hematopoietic stem cells derived from patients themselves is referred to as autologous HSCT.13 Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells derived from an identical twin is referred to as syngeneic HSCT, and transplantation of hematopoi-etic stem cells from stem cells other than the patient or an identical twin is referred to as allogeneic HSCT. The stem cells used for HSCT are of hematopoietic origin, as more primitive stem cells are of interest for regenerative therapy, highlighting their plasticity and unique biologic characteristics.5

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