Introduction

A number of novel strategies have evolved for the treatment of refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Novel targeting agents that have demonstrated success in clinical trials include radiolabeled antibodies, fusion toxins, which direct cytotoxic moieties into the cell via membrane receptors, and antisense oligonucleotides, which bind to mRNA and inhibit translation of proteins in the cell. A number of agents that target specific intracellular pathways have also been developed, including bortezomib, which inhibits proteosome function, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which modulate gene transcription, and gallium nitrate, which inhibits transferrin-dependent enzymatic pathways. Finally, the newer technologies have been developed to implement immunotherapeu-tic approaches.

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