Other monoclonal antibodies

A number of other unconjugated antibodies are being evaluated in clinical trials for follicular NHL (Table 53.1).

Alemtuzumab Alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) is a humanized anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody with activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia as well as T-cell lymphomas; however, its single-agent activity in indolent B-cell NHL has been disappointing.7172

Epratuzumab Epratuzumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the CD22 antigen, expressed on a variety of lymphomas. In a dose-escalation study of epratuzumab in 55 patients with indolent NHL, no dose-limiting toxicities were identified.73 The overall response rate was 24% in those with follicular histologies. In a subsequent trial, both epratuzumab and rituximab were administered using an empiric schedule with each weekly for 4 weeks. The response rate and duration were disappointing, suggesting that a inferior dose and schedule of this combination was used.74

Anti-CD80 (Galiximab) CD80 is an immune costimu-latory molecule present on the surface of NHL cells. Galiximab (IDEC-114) is a macaque-human chimeric anti-CD80 antibody with in vivo antilymphoma properties. In phase I trials, the antibody was well tolerated except for mild fatigue, nausea, and headaches. Moreover, single-agent activity was approximately 15%.75 Based on preclinical data suggesting synergy, a phase I/II study of the combination of galiximab and rituximab was conducted, and a response rate of 58.3% was reported.76 This combination has been evaluated as the initial therapy for patients with follicular lymphoma in a Cancer and Leukemia Group B phase II trial and results are pending.

Apolizumab Apolizumab (Hu1D10, Remitogen) is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against a polymorphic determinant of HLA-DR, found on both normal B-cells and in about half of patients with lym-phoid malignancies. Limited activity and excessive toxicities have halted its development (U. Hegde, T. White, M. Stetler-Stevenson et al., unpublished data, 2002).77,78

Humanized anti-CD20 Several humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies are in clinical trials.79 Potential advantages are activation of different pathways enhancing cell kill, and a shorter infusion time. Whether there will be any clinical benefit remains to be determined.

The Prevention and Treatment of Headaches

The Prevention and Treatment of Headaches

Are Constant Headaches Making Your Life Stressful? Discover Proven Methods For Eliminating Even The Most Powerful Of Headaches, It’s Easier Than You Think… Stop Chronic Migraine Pain and Tension Headaches From Destroying Your Life… Proven steps anyone can take to overcome even the worst chronic head pain…

Get My Free Audio Book

Post a comment