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and gene expression profiling has uncovered characteristic molecular signatures of some AML subtypes. Both cytogenetic and molecular findings are associated with specific laboratory and clinical characteristics, and are being used as diagnostic and prognostic markers, guiding the clinician in selecting effective therapies. Clinical trials have begun testing the effectiveness of treatments, using compounds targeting specific molecular defects in leukemic blasts. Ongoing research will likely help resolve differences among the major cytogenetic risk-assignment schemata in prognostic categorization of more frequent chromosome aberrations, and will shed light on the currently unknown prognostic significance of less common aberrations. Likewise, novel molecular genetic rearrangements suitable for therapeutic targeting will continue to be discovered. Standardization of microarray assays will likely enable meaningful comparison of results obtained in different laboratories and may eventually lead to application of gene expression profiling in individual patients, with the goal of predicting their response to therapy and tailoring treatment to specific molecular lesions acquired by the leukemic blasts. These advances will hopefully result in improved clinical outcome of patients with AML.

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