1. Dameshek W: Some speculations on the myeloproliferative syndromes. Blood 6:372, 1951.

2. Adamson JW, Fialkow PJ, Murphy S, et al.: Polycythemia vera: stem-cell and probable clonal origin of the disease. N Engl J Med 295:913, 1976.

3. Swolin B, Weinfeld A, Westin J: A prospective long-term cytogenetic study in polycythemia vera in relation to treatment and clinical course. Blood 72:386, 1988.

4. Diez-Martin JL, Graham DL, Petitt RM, et al.: Chromosome studies in 104 patients with polycythemia vera. Mayo Clinic Proc 66:287, 1991.

5. Berk PD, Goldberg JD, Silverstein MN, et al.: Increased incidence of acute leukemia in polycythemia vera associated with chlorambucil therapy. N Engl J Med 304:441, 1981.

6. Jaffe ES, Harris NL, Stein H, et al. (eds.): World Health Organization Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2001:15.

7. Linman J, Bethell F: Agnogenic myeloid metaplasia. Am J Med 22:107, 1957.

8. Gunz F: Hemorrhagic thrombocythemia: a critical review. Blood 15:706, 1960.

9. Tefferi A: Chronic myeloid disorders: classification and treatment overview. Semin Hematol 38(1 suppl 2):1, 2001.

10. Prochazka AV, Markowe HLJ: The epidemiology of polycythemia vera in England and Wales 1968-1982. Br J Cancer 53:59, 1986.

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12. Ania BJ, Suman VJ, Sobell JL, et al.: Trends in the incidence of polycythemia vera among Olmstead County, Minnesota, residents, 1935-1989. Am J Hematol 47:89, 1994.

13. McNally RJQ, Roman RE, Cartwright RA: Age and sex distribution of haematological malignancies in the UK. Hematol Oncol 15:173, 1997.

14. Mesa RA, Silverstein MN, Jacobsen SJ, et al.: Population-based incidence and survival figures in essential throm-bocythemia and agnogenic myeloid metaplasia: an Olmsted County study, 1976-1995. Am J Hematol 61:10, 1999.

benzene, and the Rauscher and feline leukemia virus, antigen-antibody complexes, and ionizing radiation have been shown to cause AMM in experimental animals.26 The extramedullary hematopoiesis is believed to be a result of a normal response of mesenchymal cells to tissue injury. Some reported associations with AMM include exposure to toluene and benzene.27 28 An increased incidence of AMM was seen in patients receiving thorotrast.29 The victims of the atomic bombing in Hiroshima had an 18 times more risk of AMM than that of the remainder of the Japanese population, with symptoms appearing at an average age of 6 years after the exposure, lending credence to the thought that radiation or nuclear exposure is a risk factor for developing AMM.30

15. Shepherd PC, Ganesan TS, Galton DA: Haematological classification of the chronic myeloid leukaemias. Baillieres Clin Haematol 1:887, 1987.

16. Berlin NI: Diagnosis and classification of the polycythemias. Semin Hematol 12:339, 1975.

17. Osgood EE: Polycythemia vera: age relationships and survival. Blood 26:243, 1965.

18. Najean Y, Mugnier P, Dresch C, et al.: Polycythemia vera in young people: an analysis of 58 cases diagnosed before 40 years. Br J Haematol 67:285, 1987.

19. You W, Weisbrot IM: Chronic neutrophilic leukemia. Report of two cases and review of the literature. Am J Clin Path 72:233, 1979.

20. Zittoun R, Rea D, Ngoic LH, Ramond S: Chronic neutrophilic leukemia. A study of four cases. Ann Hematol 68:55, 1994.

21. Weller PF, Bubley GJ: The idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. Blood 83:2759, 1994.

22. Damon A, Holub DA: Host factors in polycythemia vera. Ann Intern Med 49:43, 1958.

23. Chaiter Y, Brenner B, Aghai E, et al.: High incidence of myeloproliferative disorders in Ashkenazi Jews in northern Israel. Leuk Lymphoma 7:251, 1992.

24. Brubaker LH, Wsasserman LR, Goldberg JD, et al.: Increased prevalence of polycythemia vera in parents of patients on polycythemia study group protocols. Am J Hematol 16:367, 1984.

25. Inaba T, Shimazaki C, Hirai H, et al.: Familial polycythemia vera in father and daughter. Am J Hematol 51:172, 1996.

26. Wasserman LR, Berk PD, Berlin N (eds.): Polycythemia Vera and the Myeloproliferative Disorders. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1995.

27. Honda Y, Delzell E, Cole P: An updated study of mortality among workers at a petroleum manufacturing plant. J Occup Environ Med 37:194, 1995.

28. Hu H: Benzene-associated myelofibrosis. Ann Intern Med 106:171, 1987.

29. Visfeldt J, Andersson M: Pathoanatomical aspects of haematological disorders among Danish patients exposed to thorium dioxide. APMIS 103:29, 1995.

30. Anderson RE, Hioshino T, Yammamoto T: Myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia in survivors of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima. Ann Inter Med 60:1, 1964.

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Chapter 46

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