References

1. Jemal A, Tiwari RC, Murray T, et al.: Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 54(1):8-29, 2004.

2. Xie Y, Davies SM, Xiang Y, et al.: Trends in leukemia incidence and survival in the United States (1973-1998). Cancer 97(9):2229-2235, 2003.

3. Kato H, WJ Schull: Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors. 7. Mortality, 1950-1978. Part I: Cancer mortality. Radiat Res 90(2):395-432, 1982.

4. Adamson RH, SM Seiber: Chemically induced leukemia in humans. Environ Health Perspect 39:93-103, 1981.

5. Bernard J: The epidemiology of leukemias (past, present, future). Nouv Rev Fr Hematol 31(2):103-109, 1989.

6. Levine EG, Bloomfield CD: Leukemias and myelodys-plastic syndromes secondary to drug, radiation, and environmental exposure. Semin Oncol 19(1):47-84, 1992.

7. Thirman MJ, Larson RA: Therapy-related myeloid leukemia. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 10(2):293-320, 1996.

8. Austin H, Delzell E, Cole P: Benzene and leukemia. A review of the literature and a risk assessment. Am J Epidemiol 127(3):419-439, 1988.

Unfortunately, no classification system will be entirely inclusive, and the WHO recognizes this with the group of AML, not otherwise categorized. This group corresponds in most cases to the same morphologic entity as is delineated in the FAB schema. Indeed, this is pointed out as a limitation of the system, one which gives the clinician no help in planning therapy for a given case of AML. However, those who developed the WHO classification point out that the system is meant to be of worldwide application, and that there will be places where the diagnostic facilities are not yet sophisticated enough to provide information to make a more specific categorization. This last category of AML does include the entity of acute erythroid leukemia, and recognizes that there are two subtypes. Pure erythroid leukemia has at least 80% immature erythroid precursors with minimal differentiation and no significant myeloblastic component, as distinguished from the second subtype, which has at least 50% immature erythroid precursors and 20% myeloblasts in the nonerythroid population.

Modifications of the WHO classification will continue to be made with advances in our knowledge of the biology and treatment of AML. An International Working Group has recently recommended some definitions of terminology. Thus, de novo AML is defined as "AML in patients with no clinical history of prior MDS, myeloproliferative disorder, or exposure to potentially leukemogenic therapies or agents." Secondary AML is defined as those patients with AML who do have prior MDS or exposure to leukemogenic therapies and should be categorized as "AML secondary to prior existing MDS, myeloproliferative disorder, or the development of AML secondary to proven leukemogenic exposure."86

9. Kyle RA: Second malignancies associated with chemotherapeutic agents. Semin Oncol 9(1):131-142, 1982.

10. Keith L, Brown E: Leukemia in twins: world-wide review of clinical cases. Acta Genet Med Gemellol (Roma) 19(1):66-68, 1970.

11. Hitzig WH, Rampini S: Leukemia in twins; 4 case reports & review of literature. Helv Paediatr Acta 14(1):67-97, 1959.

12. Macmahon B, Levy MA: Prenatal origin of childhood leukemia. Evidence from twins. N Engl J Med 270: 1082-1085, 1964.

13. Keith L, Brown E: Epidemiologic study of leukemia in twins (1928-1969). Acta Genet Med Gemellol (Roma) 20(1):9-22, 1971.

14. Miller RW: Deaths from childhood leukemia and solid tumors among twins and other sibs in the United States, 1960-1967. J Natl Cancer Inst 46(1):203-209, 1971.

15. Greaves MF, Maia AT, Wiemels, JL, et al.: Leukemia in twins: lessons in natural history. Blood 102(7):2321-2333, 2003.

16. Harnden DG: Inherited factors in leukaemia and lymphoma. Leuk Res 9(6):705-707, 1985.

17. Horwitz M: The genetics of familial leukemia. Leukemia 11(8):1347-1359, 1997.

18. Novik Y, Marino P, Makower DF, et al.: Familial ery-throleukemia: a distinct clinical and genetic type of familial leukemias. Leuk Lymphoma 30(3/4):395-401, 1998.

19. Zipursky A, Poon A, Doyle J: Leukemia in Down syndrome: a review. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 9(2):139-149,

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment