Syngeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Syngeneic HSCT uses stem cells from an identical twin.59'60 As the stem cells are genetically identical with the recipient, the major advantages of a syngeneic HSCT are that they are not associated with GVHD or graft rejection. Another significant advantage of syngeneic HSCT, which is shared with allogeneic HSCT, is that there is no risk of contamination by malignant cells. The major disadvantage is that the syngeneic HSCT does not provide a GVL effect that is associated with allogeneic HSCT; conversely, however, syngeneic HSCT is not associated with GVHD or graft rejection. This results in a relatively low risk of treatment-related morbidity and mortality. The greatest disadvantage is that far less than 1% of patients have an identical twin, making this an unavailable option for the overwhelming majority of patients. However, when an identical twin is available, syngeneic HSCT is considered the preferred type of HSCT in almost all clinical situations, due to the aforementioned advantages.

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