The Late Engraftment Period

The late engraftment period commences at day 100 and continues until the discontinuation of all immunosup-pressive therapy and the absence of GVHD. Beyond day 100, autologous HSCT recipients have a more rapid return of immune function compared with allogeneic recipients, and their risk of opportunistic infection is low. Defects in humoral, cellular, and reticuloendothelial immune function persist beyond day 100 in allogeneic HSCT recipients for up to 18-36 months, especially in those with GVHD and in those who have received matched unrelated, mismatched family-related, or umbilical cord blood HSCTs. In general, the risk of opportunistic infection correlates with the severity of chronic GVHD during this period.

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