Arterial Changes in Vasospasm

Systemic Arterial Response to Injury The most common injury to human blood vessels is caused by arterial hypertension (Table 4.4). This results in a stereotypic response consisting of thickening of the arterial media due to smooth muscle cell proliferation (96,97). Similar changes occur in animals (98, 99). Acute severe hypertension can induce edema in the vessel wall, with resultant fragmentation of the elastica and myonecrosis. The latter is a signal for subsequent proliferation...

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Artere Peri Calleuse

On day 1 following the (SAH), her breathing was stertorous and swallowing was difficult. She was incontinent. On day 3, she appeared more sensible and was able to eat when spoken to, she attempted to answer but was unable to articulate. On day 4 she had rallied as to recognize her relative who visited her, and to say distinctly, 'My cousin.' On the fifth day following the bleed, her symptoms became aggravated, her pupils fixed and dilated, and she died. There was a large SAH in the left sylvian...

Fl The Subarachnoid Space Piaarachnoid Arachnoid Villi and Cerebrospinal Fluid

Subdural Space Cerebrospinal Fluid

Subarachnoid Space and Pia-arachnoid The leptomeninges form a complete investment for the brain and spinal cord. The arachnoid and pia mater are connected by dentate ligaments in the spinal canal and numerous trabeculae in the cranial subarachnoid space. They comprise the leptomeninges and are relatively avascular. The arachnoid membrane in man is formed by two layers of cells (Fig. 4.3). Basement membrane separates the superficial dark cells (electron dense) from the collagen fibers of the...

Inactive Complex

FIGURE 3.13 Factors involved in fibrinolysis and antifibrinolysis. in up to one-third of cases, but this is generally too slow a process to prevent infarction. t-PA has exceptionally high affinity for fibrin and theoretically can lyse thrombi with less systemic activation of fibrinolysis than u-PA or streptokinase 13 . The inactive form of plasminogen circulates in the blood. Coagulation causes the release of t-PA from endothelium and other tissues which then converts plasminogen to plasmin....

Arterial Spasm from Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Left Normal basilar and vertebral arteries. Right 1 1 2 minutes after irrigation of the vessels with 15 drops of fresh arterial blood. Note the marked spasm of the vessels reproduced with permission from J. Neurosurg. 1 . FIGURE 1.10 Monkey No. 313. Left Normal basilar and vertebral arteries. Right 1 1 2 minutes after irrigation of the vessels with 15 drops of fresh arterial blood. Note the marked spasm of the vessels reproduced with permission from J. Neurosurg. 1 ....

Epidemiology

Incidence of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage IV. Timing of Angiography and Incidence of Vasospasm V. Prognostic Factors for Vasospasm C. Anatomical and Systemic Factors H. Physiological Parameters I. Hydrocephalus VI. Factors Unrelated to Vasospasm VII. Effect of Vasospasm on Outcome VIII. Influence of Surgery on Vasospasm IX. Relative Significance of Vasospasm X. Vasospasm and Cerebral Infarction XI. The Incidence of Vasospasm over Time XII. Vasospasm and Nonaneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage A....

Platelet

Platelet Open Canalicular System

Factor XII Platelet Derived Endothelial Growth Factor ATP, ADP, Ca2 , Serotonin, Phosphate, Guanine Nucleotides Factor XII Platelet Derived Endothelial Growth Factor ATP, ADP, Ca2 , Serotonin, Phosphate, Guanine Nucleotides FIGURE 3.6 The platelet and its contents and products. Platelets are activated by multiple stimuli, including i substances in the milieu of arterial atherosclerotic plaques such as ADP, epinephrine, collagen, and thrombin, and ii mechanical stimuli such as shear forces....