EM Diisterhoft and G van den Berg

The soapy off-flavour is caused by the combination of different free fatty acids (FFA) derived from hydrolytic degradation (lipolysis) of milk fat 90 . Lipolysis during ripening in normal Gouda-type cheese (made from pasteurised milk) is rather low (ca. 400 mg FFA kg at 8 weeks). It is principally the short chain fatty acids (C4-C6) which - in low levels - contribute positively to the Gouda flavour profile. In contrast to some other (semi) hard cheeses, even a low level of longer chain FFA...

Is Escherichia coli 0157H7 of concern to cheesemakers

Escherichia coli O157 H7, a pathogen first characterised in 1982, is now a leading cause of foodborne illness. E. coli O157 H7 is a very dangerous human pathogen, particularly for young children. Just a few cells of this bacterium can permanently inactivate kidney function in young children. Bloody diarrhoea, haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and kidney failure are associated with E. coli O157 H7 illness. A major reservoir of E. coli O157 H7 in nature is the gastrointestinal tract of...

How can one make lowsodium cheese

Although sodium is an essential component in the human diet, excessive intakes have undesirable physiological effects, the most significant of which are hypertension and increased calcium excretion which can lead to osteoporosis . The recommended daily requirement of sodium for the adult human is -2.4 g Na , which is equivalent to -6 g NaCl, per day. Sodium intake in the modern western diet is 2-3-fold higher than recommended. This has given rise to recommendations for reduced dietary intake of...

Cheese Classification

Rennin Milk Coagulating

A wide range of cheeses and cheese-like products are produced worldwide but from a very limited range of raw materials. Natural cheese is made from cow's, sheep's, goat's or buffalo's milk, lactic acid bacteria, rennet in the case of rennet-coagulated varieties and salt, yet it has been said that there is 'a cheese for every taste preference and a taste preference for every cheese'. Cheese has a long history and the collective heritage of certain varieties has been ensured in Europe by...

Milk

Milk is a fluid secreted by the female of all mammals, the primary function of which is the complete nutrition of the neonate of the species. Since the nutritional requirements of the young of the different mammalian species differ greatly, it is unsurprising that the compositions of milks of different species vary considerably. Typical compositions of the milks of the principal dairy species are shown in Table 1. In addition to interspecies differences, milk from a particular species will also...

Biochemistry Of Cheese Ripening

Biochemistry Cheese Ripening

Hard cheeses are ripened after manufacture for periods ranging from a few months to 2 or more years and it is during this ripening period that the flavour and texture characteristic of the variety develop 54, 88 . Cheese ripening usually involves changes to the microflora of the cheese 54, 56 , often death and lysis of starter cells, the development of an adventitious non-starter microflora 56 and, in certain cases, the growth of secondary organisms 117, 128, 137, 142 . It is often difficult to...

Photooxidation Of Norbixin

Non Linear Rheological Tests Cheese

Cheddar is a hard cheese that originated from the village of the same name in the south-west of Britain and is now among the most important cheeses made worldwide, particularly in English-speaking countries. Cheddar cheese is made from pasteurised 10, 11 , standardised 9 cow's milk Fig. 1 . Mesophilic starter cultures 18 are used and, in large cheese factories, defined-strain starter systems are common. The milk is renneted at -30 0C and the curds whey mixture is cooked to 37-390C. After whey...

Do pathogens grow during cheese ripening

Activity Water Ripening Cheese

Whether pathogens grow or decline during ripening depends largely on the chemical and compositional properties of the cheese variety in question. In general, cheeses with high moisture contents, or those with a neutral pH due to bloomy rind or smear development, will support the survival or growth of pathogens during ripening. Conversely, in hard, low-moisture cheeses with a low pH, pathogens die during ripening. Pathogens can be present in cheeses either as a result of surviving pasteurisation...