Summary

In summary, work on anxiety and helplessness shows that some children suffer from motivational problems that can undermine their performance in achievement situations. Although most of the work in developmental and educational psychology has focused on these two problems, there likely are other important motivational problems as well. In particular, some children may set maladaptive achievement goals, others may have difficulty regulating their achievement behaviors, and still others come to...

Semi-submersible Offshore Structures

Although within group analyses would have been fascinating and important to examine, they were not possible given the current sample. That is, we suspect that among families from certain racial ethnic groups the socialization messages that parents intend to send children may be sent in such a way that they are clearer and have more impact on children than among other families from other racial ethnic groups. However, the number of parent-child matches within each ethnic group in the sample was...

Mohammed Abdul Hannan

How do we know if adolescents are doing well in life What vocabulary do researchers, parents, teachers, policy makers, and often young people themselves, use to describe a young person who is showing successful development All too often in the United States and internationally, we discuss positive development in regard to the absence of negative or undesirable behaviors. Typically, such descriptions are predicated on the assumption that children are broken or in danger of becoming broken...

Info

Yes (only boys & high masc pref girls) a All studies contained a same-sex label and an opposite-sex label condition. The studies that included a neutral condition either used a both boys and girls label (Both) or a No Label (NL) condition. b This study included a no labeling (NL) control condition however it was not a neutral condition because the children observed either a same-sex or opposite-sex model engaging with the toys (i.e., modeling only condition). c This nonsignificant approach...

Focus on Desired Object Search for Mother

Figure 1.1 Self-regulatory strategies displayed by children in delay and separation situations. behavioral strategies than 12-month-olds. These findings support the notion that older children are more able to utilize active strategies than their younger counterparts. Building upon our earlier work, a recent study (Grolnick, Bridges, & DeCourcey, 2004), examined children's use of seven strategies (active engagement was divided into that with mother and independent play) in a cross-sectional...

Discussion

In this chapter, we focused on parents' messages to children about race and ethnicity as a central component of parenting, particularly among ethnic minority parents. After providing a brief overview of the concept of racial ethnic socialization and the literature in this area, we focused on exploring the extent to which parents' racial ethnic socialization messages are actually heard by children, and the conditions under which there is likely to be lack of correspondence in perceptions of, or...

Why Am I Doing This

Achievement goal theory is the newest motivational approach to understanding children's engagement in various skill-based activities like school and sports (see Midgley, 2002). This theory focuses on why children think they are engaging in particular achievement-related activities and what they hope to accomplish through their engagement. Although the work related to this theory has progressed independently of the work discussed earlier on the valuing of an activity and on intrinsic versus...

Family Income and Early Child Care

The effects of poverty on children may be mediated not only by parents and the home environment, but by the early care and educational environments in which many children spend time. Most American children from all income levels spend significant amounts of time in nonmaternal care during their early years. A 1999 Survey by the National Survey of America's Families shows that 73 of children under age 5 with employed parents were in nonparental child-care arrangements, primarily center-based...

Reactive Covariance

Keeping these constraints in mind, what is the nature of evidence linking variability in individual temperament to the characteristics of the individual's environment In regard to the question of reactive covariance, particularly during the first 2 years of life, some individual longitudinal studies have recorded evidence suggesting that variability in infant temperament influences subsequent parenting behavior. For example, Van den Boom and Hoeksma (1994) have found that over time mothers of...

Poverty And Child Development

Children who grow up in low-income families begin life with several disadvantages, many of which continue through adulthood. Poor children are at risk for problems of health (e.g., low-birth weight, infant mortality, childhood death and injury, contagious diseases, and injuries), developmental delays in intellectual development, low levels of school achievement, and social-emotional and behavioral problems. By adolescence, these problems take the form of higher rates of juvenile crime, early...

The Functions of Friendships Between Very Young Children

Can peers provide other child experiences of social support, trust, and intimacy Do children who grew up together sharing the common resources of the child care center have a different kind of social interaction than acquaintances Do cross-sex peers and cross-ethnic peers who became friends in the context of child care form nontraditional relationships Each of these questions describes a potential function of friendship experiences of social support, trust, and intimacy a context for mastering...

Prevalence And Psychological Consequences Of Exposure To Community Violence

Based on the community violence studies of the early 1990s, between 44-82 of school-aged children and youth are exposed to community violence, depending on definitional criteria, methodology, and sample characteristics (Overstreet, 2000 Stein, Jaycox, Kataoka, Rhodes, & Vestal, 2003). According to the early studies, by the end of elementary school, almost all children residing in high crime innercity areas of Washington and New Orleans had heard (98 ) or witnessed (90 ) moderate to severe...

Introduction

A careful observer and listener can find young children exploring peer relations in all sorts of public spaces from playgrounds to grocery stores. Children barely able to toddle play peek-a-boo, run-and-chase, or simple pretend games like I am pulling you in my wagon. We are going to the store. By 3 or 4 years of age, play becomes sophisticated with elaborate scripts and costumes. Children can say and act out. We are going camping, and pretend that there is a bear, and you are the baby in your...

Gender Development Two Cultures Theory

Whereas peer relations researchers have been inconsistent at best in examining the role of gender, gender development scholars have proposed an elegant theoretical framework that could fruitfully guide research in this area, called Two Cultures or Two Worlds Theory (see Maccoby, 1998 for a comprehensive presentation of the theory, and Underwood, 2003, for a discussion of how this framework could inform research on children's peer relations). The most fundamental claim of Two Cultures Theory is...

When the Children Cannot Yet Talk About Friendships

We define an affective relationship as one that includes feelings of affection or what would be called love in adult-child relationships. Toddler affective relationships have attributes of friendship common to the 'best friendships' which provide older children with emotional security and closeness (Howes, 1996 Howes, with Unger et al., 1992). These early friendship relationships appear to be formed in a way similar to adult-child attachment relationships (Howes, 1996). In the following...

Midgley And Adler 1984 Reference

T., Quay, H. C., & Conners, C. K. (1991). National survey of problems and competencies among four to sixteen year olds. Monographs for the Society of Research in Child Development, 56(3). Alexander, K. L., & Entwise, D. (1988). Achievement in the first two years of school Patterns and processes. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 53(2, Serial No. 218). Alexander, K. L., Dauber, S. L., & Entwisle, D. R. (1993). First-grade classroom...

Examining Effects of Earliest Pubertal Changes on Mood in Preadolescent Girls

Our group has conducted an exploratory investigation in order to examine pubertal and hormonal effects on mood during the time when pubertal hormones are expected to be increasing prior to and along with early changes in secondary sexual characteristics (Archibald, Graber, & Brooks-Gunn, 2004). Participants were 76 preadolescent girls of varied ethnic backgrounds White (n 36), African American (n 25), and Latina (n 15). Girls were recruited in 1995 from public and parochial schools from...

Messages Sent Versus Messages Received

In light of the complexity and subtlety of racial ethnic socialization processes, it seems quite likely that the messages parents intend to communicate differ from the messages children actually receive (or report receiving). That is, children can miss, misinterpret, or ignore parents' communications about race, and parents can selectively remember and report only those messages that they intend to send and those messages that they would like their children to receive. In fact, in a study...

Table 182

Measures and Constructs Used in the Student Questionnaire of the 4-H Study Demographic information about youth and their families Developmental assets and thriving indicators Parental monitoring Target based expectations Self-perceived competencies and global self-worth Ideology concerning community contribution Barriers to participation in community activities Regulation and goal-oriented behaviors School and career aspirations expectations Pubertal development Psychosocial development...

Within Task Learning versus Previously Acquired Knowledge

An important issue regarding the category representations of infants is whether they are constructed (presumably on the basis of real-life experience) before the experiment began or whether the category representations are formed on-line, during the course of an experiment (Mareschal & Quinn, 2001). The former view would argue that infants recognize the photographs as representations of objects in the world with which they are already familiar and for which they have previous category...

References

Psychological status of the script concept. American Psychologist, 36, 715-729. Adams, J. L., Campbell, F. A., & Ramey, C. T. (1984). Infants' home environments A study of screening efficiency. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 89, 133-139. Aina, T. A., Agiobu-Kemmer, I., Etta, E. F., Zeitlin, M. F., & Setiloane, K. (1993). Early child care, development and nutrition in Lagos State, Nigiria. Produced by the Social Sciences Faculty, University of Lagos, and the...

Peer Social Status and Emotion Regulation

In addition to having close friends and belonging to a group, children also value acceptance by larger peer groups such as their school classmates, neighborhood playmates, or members of their athletic teams. Sociometric status refers to the degree of a child's social acceptance by a group, as determined by nominations from other group members. Moreno (1934) pioneered the study of sociometry by visiting school classrooms and asking children to vote for those they would most like to sit beside....

Psychological Meaning Of Pubertal Change Meaning of Pubertal Changes to Girls

The majority of studies on the psychological meaning of pubertal change were conducted in the 1970s and 1980s more current research has not examined this issue. The meaning of menarche to girls has been examined the most extensively, as menarche is a salient and singular event (Brooks-Gunn & Petersen, 1983 Brooks-Gunn & Ruble, 1982 Greif & Ulman, 1982 Koff, Rierdan, & Sheingold, 1982). In studies conducted by Brooks-Gunn and Ruble (1982), girls were interviewed within two or three...

Research On The Effects Of Playing With Concrete Objects On Childrens Understanding Of The Symbolic Properties Of

The discussion thus far of the influences of playing with concrete objects on children's understanding of educational symbols has been theoretical. We have suggested that there are direct links between our earlier research on concrete models and the challenges that children face in coming to understand educational symbols. We are now putting these ideas to the test. In recent research supported by the U.S. Department of Education, we have specifically investigated how playing with concrete...

Test Anxiety

In one of the first longitudinal studies of performance anxiety, Hill and Sarason (1966) found that anxiety both increases across the elementary and junior high school years and becomes more negatively related to subsequent grades and test scores. They also found that highly anxious children's achievement test scores were up to 2 years behind the scores of their low anxious peers and that girls' anxiety scores were higher than boys'. Subsequent research has provided estimates of just how many...

Pyd And The Five Cs

As we have noted, specification of the measurement model of the Five Cs proceeded through multiple steps. First, an extensive literature review was conducted to identify a set of measures that would serve as indicators for each of the Five Cs. Second, these measures were assessed in a pilot study involving 339 youth from five cities and towns in Massachusetts. Scales were assessed in relation to their ability to capture the essential definitions of the Five Cs developed for use in this study...

Preparation for Bias

We use the term preparation for bias to refer to such practices as parents' efforts to promote their children's awareness of racial bias, and to prepare them to cope with prejudice and discrimination. These efforts have also been emphasized as a critical component of racial ethnic socialization. Several scholars have suggested that enabling children to navigate around racial barriers and to negotiate potentially hostile social interactions are normative parenting tasks within ethnic minority...

Theory Of Mind

Theory of mind is an umbrella term that implies the capacity to make sense of (interpret, predict and explain) people's everyday behavior through the attribution of underlying mental states (Astington, 1988 Premack & Woodruff, 1978 Wellman, 1990). Theory of mind captures the critical idea that minds (mental states) represent how people understand the world, and that people act on the basis of their understandings regardless of the actual situation (Lillard, 2001a). Interestingly, Premack and...

Promotion of Mistrust

We use this term to refer to parental practices that discourage children from interacting with people of other racial-ethnic groups or that foster a sense of distrust across racial-ethnic boundaries. In our view, it is distinct from preparation for bias in that it does not incorporate messages regarding strategies for coping with and overcoming prejudice and discrimination (e.g., you have to be better you have to do more). Mistrust may be communicated in parents' warnings to children about...

Pubertal Timing Effects

A large body of literature involves studies examining links between pubertal timing and adjustment in adolescents, mainly because there is substantial variation among individuals regarding when puberty begins and how it progresses (Tanner, 1970). Girls typically exhibit the external manifestations of puberty about 1 or 2 years earlier than boys. Early-maturing girls can therefore develop 3 to 6 years ahead of boys as well as developing earlier than on-time or late-maturing girls. Variations in...

Peer Social Influence

Although parents are without a doubt extremely powerful socialization agents, we believe that our understanding of peer relations in middle childhood can also be augmented by understanding more about peer social influence. Developmental researchers have long been aware of the importance of peer relationships for the socialization of children (e.g., Hartup, 1983 Kupersmidt & Dodge, 2004), and ample evidence exists that children who are successful in their peer relationships have better...

The Decreasing Age Of Pubertal Onset

The data presented in the previous section on average age of breast and pubic hair development in girls and boys in the United States stem from study conducted by 225 clinicians in pediatric practices belonging to Pediatric Research in Office Settings (PROS), a practice-based research network that is part of the American Academy of Pediatrics (Herman-Giddens et al., 1997). Previous to this study, the study most often quoted as defining normative ages for puberty was the Marshall and Tanner...

Exposure And Preschool Development

Mirroring the broad psychological consequences on the development of school-aged children exposed to acts of community violence, mothers of preschoolers report child distress-related problems in various functioning domains including internalizing behavior problems (i.e., anxiety and depression), externalizing behavior problems (i.e., aggression), and trauma-specific PTSD symptoms. In the Shahinfar et al., study (2000) of Head Start preschoolers exposed to interpersonal violence, CBCL...

Family Process Models

Bronfenbrenner's 1995 bioecological theory and Belsky's 1984 process model of parenting have provided useful frameworks for guiding research on parenting and child development. During the 1990s, several scholars have provided additional framing for those interested in more fully delineating how the resources available to families or lack thereof are implicated in parenting and child functioning Conger, Wallace, Simons, McLoyd, amp Brody, 2002 McLoyd, 1990 . Generically, these frameworks can be...

Word Spurt Image

Vocabulary Spurt

Figure 4.2 Modeling fitted survivor functions for the timing of first words Estimated function for high levels of maternal responses with affirmations, descriptions, and play prompts at 9 months upper 10th percentile and estimated function for low levels of responding with affirmations, descriptions, and play prompts at 9 months lowest 10th percentile . children accumulate 50 words in their expressive vocabularies, they experience a sudden acceleration in production, referred to as the...

Eccles et al Expectancy Value Theory

Eccles Model

Eccles and her colleagues have elaborated and tested an expectancy-value model of achievement-related choices and engagement, Eccles, 1987 Eccles Parsons et al., 1983 Eccles, Adler, amp Meece, 1984 Eccles amp Wigfield, 1995 Meece, Wigfield, amp Eccles, 1990 Wigfield amp Eccles, 1992 . The most recent version of this model is depicted in Figure 14.1. Expectancies and values are assumed to di- Figure 14.1 General model of achievement choices. Figure 14.1 General model of achievement choices....

Categorization of Animal Species and Artifacts

Child Development Categorization

In a series of studies, young infants have been shown to form category representations for a variety of animal species and furniture artifacts reviewed in Quinn, 2002c . In the experiments investigating young infants' category representations of various animal species, 3- and 4-month-olds familiarized with instances of 12 domestic cats, representing different breeds and depicted in a variety of stances, will generalize familiarization to novel instances of domestic cats, but show novel category...

The Broader Ecology Of Attachment Security

Belsky Process Model 1984

Through this point I have considered what might be referred to as classical determinants of attachment security, namely those considered in most developmental theorizing about the origins of secure and insecure attachment Belsky, Rosenberger, amp Crnic, 1995a . But an ecological perspective on human development, one that underscores the fact that the parent-child dyad is embedded in a family system Belsky, 1981 , which is itself embedded in a community, cultural, and even historical context...

Examining Pathways Between Pubertal Effects and Adjustment in Girls

Proposed pathways between pubertal effects and adjustment were examined in a study of 100 adolescent girls between the ages of 10 to 14 Graber, Brooks-Gunn, amp Warren, in press . Girls were from well-educated, middle to upper-middle class families in a major northeastern urban area. Measures of pubertal status included Tanner ratings for breast and pubic hair development. Pubertal timing comparisons were made for early maturing versus other girls girls were classified as early using norms for...

The Big Three Components of Effective Youth Development Programs

What are the specific actions taken by youth development programs that make them effective in promoting the Five Cs Catalano et al. 1999 find that the preponderant majority about 75 of effective positive youth development programs focus on what Lerner 2004 termed the Big Three design features of effective positive youth development YD programs. YD programs involving the Big Three provide 1. Opportunities for youth participation in and leadership of activities that 2. Emphasize the development...

Concreteness and the Dual Representation Hypothesis

What accounts for the fragility of young children's comprehension of the relation between the room and the model In several studies we have demonstrated that the concreteness of the model is actually Short-Delay-First M ed ium-Del ay-Fi rst Figure 8.2 The effect of delay on children's use of a model. The initial delay led to much worse performance, even on the subsequent shorter days. a cause of children's difficulty in using it as a symbol. Highly attractive and salient objects may be...

The Effect of Gender Labels on Exploration Preferences and Performance Exploration

The three studies that have examined the effects of gender stereotypes on children's exploration have found that children are more likely to approach same-sex labeled toys when compared to opposite-sex labeled toys Bradbard amp Endsley, 1983 Bradbard, Martin, Endsley, amp Halverson, 1986 Masters, Ford, Arend, Grotevant, amp Clark, 1979 . For example, Bradbard et al. 1986 measured the amount of time 4 to 9-year-old children tactually explored novel objects after they were provided with same-sex,...

The Role Of Parents In The Vocabulary Spurt And Early Grammar

Vocabulary Spurt

What role does parents' responsiveness play in children's language development during the period of the vocabulary spurt and beyond We speculated that verbal responsiveness would be associated with more rapid growth in children's productive language over the second year would predict the diversity of meanings children use to express their verbal constructions and would be associated with the developmental timing of both the vocabulary spurt and combinatorial speech i.e., combining words into...

Summary of Quality of Friendships Qualitative Data

Similar to what the research literature has suggested Savin-Williams amp Berndt, 1990 , shared secrets were a critical part of the experience of closeness for the adolescents in our studies. Contrary to the existing literature on friendships, however, shared secrets or the desire to share secrets was just as important for boys as for girls. Perhaps among adolescents who come from more interdependent cultures e.g., poor and working class, African American, Latino, and Asian American families ,...

Intrinsic Motivation Theories

The theories described in this section deal with the distinction when intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. When individuals are intrinsically motivated they do activities either because they enjoy doing them or because they want to do them. When extrinsically motivated, individuals do activities for instrumental or other reasons, such as receiving a reward. Two basic assumptions about behavior underlie Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory 1 the assumption that humans are...

Cross LaggedPanel Correlations

The relationships between children's stereotyped knowledge and preference scores were examined using cross-lagged-panel correlations. This type of analysis allows us to assess whether there are concurrent relationships between these two dimensions, or whether children's knowledge predicts preferences after a time lag. In addition, the stability of knowledge and preferences over time can also be explored. Given that stereotype knowledge develops during ages 5 to 7, we focused on these lagged...

Empathyrelated Responding And Prosocial Behavior

Numerous philosophers and psychologists have suggested that empathy-related processes motivate prosocial behavior Blum, 1980 Hoffman, 2000 Hume, 1777 1966 Staub, 1979 that when people experience others' negative emotions, they are likely to engage in prosocial behavior. However, in 1982 Underwood and Moore published a review in which they found, contrary to most theories, no empirical relation between empathy and prosocial behavior. Upon careful consideration of this literature, it became clear...

Eccles Wigfield and Colleagues Work on Subjective Task Values

Eccles and her colleagues have elaborated the concept of subjective task value. Building on earlier work on achievement values e.g., Battle, 1966 , intrinsic and extrinsic motivation e.g., Deci, 1975 Gottfried, 1990 , and on Rokeach's 1979 view that values are shared beliefs about desired end-states, Eccles Parsons et al. 1983 outlined four motivational components of task value attainment value, intrinsic value, utility value, and cost. Like Battle 1966 , they defined attainment value as the...

Models Linking Pubertal Processes And Psychosocial Adjustment

The research that links puberty with psychosocial adjustment involves two main categories of models pubertal status and timing of puberty Brooks-Gunn, Graber et al., 1994 Buchanan et al., 1992 Graber, Brooks-Gunn, amp Archibald, 2005 Graber, Brooks-Gunn, amp Warren, in press . Pubertal status models refer to adolescents' degree of physical maturation and their hormone levels. Models that examine hormone levels are considered direct effect models, and those that measure physical change secondary...

Historical Background

The domains identified as relevant for understanding spatial-graphic representations representation, space, and aesthetics have important histories within developmental psychology. I next highlight past approaches and controversies within each. Representations are the tools that enable the child to move from thinking and reasoning about the here and now, to thinking and reasoning about things that are not currently in view e.g., a toy in the next room or a grandparent who visited last week ,...

Nonmaternal Care

Because of the role that lengthy child-parent separations played in Bowlby's original formulations of attachment theory, concern has been raised often about the consequences of more routine, short-term separations of the kind experienced on a daily basis by children cared for by someone other than a parent when mother is employed. The initial work addressing this issue focused almost exclusively upon children being cared for in very-high-quality, university-based centers and generally failed to...

New Longitudinal Data

The question of when gender knowledge affects children's preferences was partly addressed in a recent longitudinal study of 5- to 10-year-old children. Trautner, Ruble, Kirsten, amp Hartmann 2005 followed kindergarten children for 5 years and obtained yearly assessments of their gender knowledge of specific objects and activities and their verbal preferences for those same items. This study was part of a larger longitudinal research project on gender development in German children see Trautner,...

Test Stimuli

Figure 5.3 Familiarization and test stimuli used to test adherence to the form similarity Gestalt organizational principle in Quinn, Bhatt, Brush, Grimes, and Sharpnack 2002 . The rationale is that if infants can organize the familiar stimulus in the top panel into columns, then the vertical-column test stimulus should be perceived as familiar, and the horizontal-row test stimulus should be preferred. Similarly, if infants can organize the familiar stimulus in the bottom panel into rows, then...

Learned Helplessness

As defined by Dweck and Goetz 1978 , learned helplessness . . . exists when an individual perceives the termination of failure to be independent of his responses p. 157 . Learned helplessness has been related to individuals' attributions for success and failure Helpless individuals are more likely to attribute their failures to uncontrollable factors, such as lack of ability, and their successes to unstable factors see Dweck amp Goetz, 1978 . Dweck and her colleagues have documented several...

Social Cognitive Theory

Bussey and Bandura's 1999 most recent account proposes that children's development of sex-typed knowledge and competencies is promoted by modeling, enactive experience, and direct tuition. As in previous versions of their theory, observational learning continues to take center stage as the major conveyor of gender-typed information. Through cognitive functions such as attentional and representational processes, symbolic conceptions derived through modeling are able to be translated into...

The Role Of Temperament

An alternative explanation of individual differences in attachment to that proposed by Ainsworth 1973 emphasizing the quality of maternal care draws attention to the infant's temperament, especially the dimension of negative emotionality or difficulty e.g., Goldsmith amp Alansky, 1987 . In particular, it was argued that insecurity reflects distress in the Strange Situation, which itself is a function of temperament Chess amp Thomas, 1982 Kagan, 1982 . A fundamental problem with this...

Spatial Understanding Vantage Point

As discussed earlier and as illustrated in Figure 12.2, any given representation has a particular vantage point that is determined by the combination of viewing distance, viewing angle, and viewing azimuth. Our empirical work has addressed children's developing appreciation of vantage point by examining their ability to distinguish among images that depict the same referent from different vantage points, and to produce representations that fit certain vantage-point specific qualities. As one...

Cognitive Theories of Gender Development

Cognitive-oriented theorists view children as active constructors of knowledge who seek, interpret, and act on information in an effort to match their behavior to their understanding of gender Martin, 1993 Martin, 2000 Martin amp Dinella, 2002 Martin et al., 2002, 2004 Martin amp Ruble, 2004 Ruble, 1994 . This idea was proposed by Kohlberg 1966 when he first outlined his cognitive-developmental theory of gender development. In his view, children's understanding of gender emerges as children...

Social Experiences

From infancy onward, children have a range of experiences that might either assist or retard their understanding of the social world, including the mental life of others. I consider three different types of experience separately though it will be clear that they are not independent of one another. A potentially rich milieu to learn about what others think and feel is the give and take of social interactions within the family. Through discussions, arguments, and negotiations with parents and...