Procedure for Assessing Categorization in Young Infants

In the familiarization novelty-preference method of testing for categorization, infants are presented with a number of different instances from the same category during a familiarization period. Infants are then administered a paired presentation of a novel instance of the familiar category and a novel instance from a novel category. If infants generalize their familiarization to the novel exemplar of the familiar category, and display a preference for a novel exemplar from a novel category,...

Deliberate and Unintended

Parents use a variety of strategies to promote children's racial pride, to teach them about their culture and history, and to prepare them for potential encounters with racial prejudice and discrimination. These emanate from parents' race-related values, their goals for their children, and their views of skills and competencies children will need to be successful in the larger society. Many messages, such as those we have described thus far, are communicated intentionally as part of a...

Control Theories

Control theorists have also proposed motivational components related to the question Can I succeed that are related to other aspects of social development, such as, individual's feelings of efficacy and industry, and general mental health. More specifically, these theorists propose that individuals with a strong sense of internal locus of control will be more likely to engage in, and succeed at, academic tasks and will feel better about themselves more generally. Empirical work has confirmed...

Cultural Influences On The Expression Of Individual Differences In Temperament

Differences in the level and pattern of temperament have been observed across different population or cultural groups (Gartstein, Slobodskaya, & Kinsht, 2003 Kohnstamm et al., 1998 Russell et al., 2003). For example, school age children in China are rated by their parents as being lower in conscientiousness (a measure encompassing distractibility and task persistence) then are same age children from western European countries (Kohnstamm et al., 1998). In addition, results from factor...

Academic Selfperceptions And Mental Health

We have also begun to assess the link between academic self-perceptions and mental health with our CAB (Childhood and Beyond) data. Earlier we summarized the patterns of change across middle childhood in children's academic risk status. We reported that a substantial number of children identified as at-risk in the first grade are doing fine in terms of both their academic self-concepts and their academic performance by the time they reach middle school junior high school. Now we discuss in more...

Info

Significantly different from all other conditions. Source Sheffield & Hudson (2003). Significantly different from all other conditions. Source Sheffield & Hudson (2003). olds recall when it was administered immediately prior to recall testing (see Table 9.3). Children in an immediate recall condition, the video reinstate 10-10 condition, returned to the laboratory 10 weeks after training and viewed the video simulation. They then left the playroom and were occupied in other parts of the...

Concreteness Dual Representation And Educational Symbols

In the preschool and early elementary school years, children are asked to master a variety of symbol systems, such as letters, numbers, maps, and musical notation. Symbolic reasoning is thus fundamentally important for educational achievement, and children who fail to become skilled in even one of the major symbol systems are at serious risk of being left behind. The difficulty that children sometimes have in acquiring an understanding of these important symbol systems has led to a variety of...

Future Directions

Our results suggest that there are important implications for future research and for prevention and intervention during the preschool years. First, the expansion to other preschool samples that experience different levels of psychosocial risk are an important topic of future research. The Boston project targeted mothers and their young children who reside in preidentified residential zip codes studies using a different preschool population, for example, those residing in areas of higher risk...

Emotional Responsiveness

Figure 1.2 Factors influencing children's emotional self-regulation. styles of responding are thought to be distinct from specific behaviors, but are believed to influence how different individuals act and feel about similar circumstances and events. Several recent conceptualizations of temperament focus on individuals' dispositions to express emotions, including the intensity of emotional experiences, emotional reactivity, or both, constructs with obvious relevance to emotion regulation. For...

Emotion Management Versus Emotional Integration

In discussing the issue of emotion regulation, we distinguish between emotion management per se, which involves the face of expression to the outside world, and emotional integration. When autonomously regulating emotions, individuals use emotions as guides to behavior, choicefully integrating the information inherent in them. The goal of emotional integration not only is to comply with social norms or act in opposition to one's experiences, but also to use one's inner experiences in acting...

Hormone Measures

Pubertal development can also be assessed via measuring hormonal biomarkers. As explained in the previous section, a major hormone involved in the regulation of puberty is GnRH. However, it is difficult to measure GnRH because it has a short half-life and is transported directly to the pituitary (Rockett, Lynch, & Buck, 2004). Therefore, pubertal development is most often measured through hormones regulated directly or indirectly by GnRH, including the gonadotropins (LH, FSH) and sex steroid...

Personal Narratives At

Children in the New England sample were videotaped again at age 5 participating in a range of discourse tasks, including telling a personal narrative to an experimenter about a recent experience and constructing a fantasy play narrative with the experimenter using small toy props (Hemphill, Feldman, Camp, & Griffin, 1994). In the personal narratives they recounted, children turned real experiences into narrative accounts of events. Five-year-olds in this sample related an average of five...

Early Language And Cognitive Development In Lowincome Families

Thus far, emphasis has been on children's early achievements in receptive and productive language, and the facilitative role of parents' verbal responsiveness for these emerging abilities. In addition, Figure 4.12 Modeling cumulative probability functions for the timing of 50 words Estimated function for high levels of maternal responding with imitations to children at 13 months (upper 10th percentile) and estimated function for low levels of maternal responding with imitations to children at...

Financial Independence

The third of the top three criteria, financial independence, also has connotations of individualism. However, financial independence is more tangible, more definite and measurable than accepting responsibility for one's self or the capacity for making independent decisions. It is a yardstick by which young people can measure quite definitely their progress toward adulthood. A 25-year-old woman viewed herself as mostly but not entirely finished with the transition to adulthood, because I'm...

Interest Theories

Closely related to the intrinsic interest component of subjective task value is the work on interest (Alexander, Kulikovich, & Jetton, 1994 Hidi, 1990 Renninger, Hidi & Krapp, 1992 Schiefele, 1991). Researchers in this tradition differentiate between individual and situational interest. Individual interest is a relatively stable evaluative orientation toward certain domains situational interest is an emotional state aroused by specific features of an activity or a task. Two aspects or...

Evidence for a Relationship

Designing a study that directly addresses the relationship between gender knowledge and preferences is a challenging task. Nonetheless, a few studies that have avoided at least some of the limitations of the previously reviewed research have found that a relationship appears to exist (Aubry et al., 1999 Coker, 1984 Serbin et al., 1993). For example, using a Guttman scale analysis, Coker (1984) found that 3- to 6-year-olds had knowledge of the gender stereotypes associated with concrete objects...

Introduction

When does a person become an adult in American society How does the conception of the transition to adulthood held by today's young Americans compare to the conceptions held by people in traditional cultures and in previous centuries of American and Western society Anthropologists have found that in most cultures, and particularly in the more traditional, non-Western cultures of the world, marriage is often designated explicitly as the event that marks the transition from boy to man and from...

Emotion Related Regulation Conceptualization

Despite abundant interest in recent years in emotion-related regulation, there is little consensus on its conceptualization or definition. Campos and colleagues suggested that emotion regulation can take place at three general loci at the level of sensory receptors (input regulation), at central levels where information is processed and manipulated (central regulation), and at the level of response selection (labeled output regulation Campos et al., 1994). Thompson (1994) defined emotion...

Psychology

Tamis-LeMonda Published in 2006 by Psychology Press Taylor & Francis Group 270 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10016 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Psychology Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 987654321 International Standard Book Number-10 1-84169-415-0 (Hardcover) International Standard Book Number-13 978-1-84169-415-3 (Hardcover) Library of Congress Card Number 2005002646 No part...

Summary of the Neighborhood Context

Quantitative and qualitative research on the links between neighborhoods and adolescent friendships has consistently found neighborhoods to influence the ways in which adolescents obtain, engage, and maintaining friendships with peers (Brooks-Gunn et al., 1993 Jencks & Mayer, 1990 Seidman, 1991). In our own research, however, when adolescent perceptions of the neighborhood climate were considered in combination with the effects of family and school contexts, the relative influence of...

Childrens Responses to Provocation by Same and Other Gender Peers

Although the majority of children's peer interactions during middle childhood are with same-gender peers, we must not fall into the error of assuming that spontaneous, cross-sex contact is absent in the school-age years (Maccoby, 1994, p. 87). Children in the early elementary years play in mixed gender groups about 25 of the time (Crombie & DesJardins, 1993 Maccoby & Jacklin, 1987). In light of claims that boys and girls inhabit different cultures in middle childhood (Maccoby, 1990 Thorne...

Conclusion

There is now a substantial body of research demonstrating that pretend play bears a plausible relationship to children's understanding of mental states. One possible reason for this relationship is that pretend play encourages children to appreciate the distinction between actual and represented events. However, as Harris (2000) notes, if this were true then most types of pretend play should be a stimulus for theory of mind development whereas to date there is convincing empirical support only...

Method

Participants were 382 children (198 boys and 184 girls) who had just completed the second, fourth, and sixth grades (average ages 8, 10, and 12 years). The ethnic composition of the sample reflected that of an urban public school system in the northwestern United States (approximately 85 European-American and 15 other ethnic groups). Sociometric data were collected and peer status was determined using the modified Coie, et al. (1982) method described by Terry and Coie (1991). For the peer...

Newer Views

Modern theorists working in the tradition of cognitive science have suggested that some Gestalt-like biases (e.g., common movement, connected surface) combine with or are perhaps even derived from an innate representational structure for objects in general (i.e., an object concept) to initially perceive the coherence or unity of objects (Spelke, 1982). The amorphous but cohesive object blobs that are the outcomes of this primitive parsing process can then be tracked to determine their precise...

Selfdetermination Perspective

Our developmental view of emotional self-regulation centers around the construct of autonomy and is based on self-determination theory. This theory stresses the key roles of three psychological needs autonomy, competence, and relatedness for motivated action. Self-determination theory can be characterized as an organismic theory stressing that development is a motivated process which emanates from the organism (Deci & Ryan, 1985). According to this viewpoint, individuals are born with innate...

Personal Narrative

Two hypotheses were tested for personal narrative discourse. Our more specific hypothesis was that experience with past event talk would predict later skill at telling narratives of personal experience. Our more general hypotheses was that early experience with fantasy talk and pragmatic flexibility would also predict later skill in personal narrative. A series of regression models were constructed to test these hypotheses, including gender as another predictor. The models displayed in Table...

References

An evolutionary perspective of sex-typed toy preferences Pink, blue, and the brain. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 7-14. Aubry, S., Ruble, D. N., & Silverman, L. B. (1999). The role of gender knowledge in children's gender-typed preferences. In L. Balter & C. S. Tamis-LeMonda (Eds.), Child psychology A handbook of contemporary issues (pp. 363-390). New York Psychology Press. Bandura, A., & Bussey, K. (2004). On broadening the cognitive, motivational, and...

Table 181

Working Definitions of the 5Cs of Positive Youth Development Positive view of one's actions in domain specific areas including social, academic, cognitive, and vocational. Social competence pertains to interpersonal skills (e.g., conflict resolution). Cognitive competence pertains to cognitive abilities (e.g., decision making). School grades, attendance, and test scores are part of academic competence. Vocational competence involves work habits and career choice explorations. An internal sense...

Table

Mean Spontaneous Cued Recall Scores, Reinstatement Experiments 2 and 3 Condition Production SD Production SD Experiment 2 Immediate Recall After Video Reinstatement Video reinstatement Video reinstatement Video training control Experiment 3 Delayed Recall After Video Reinstatement Video reinstatement *Significantly different from video reinstatement 2-12 and video training control 10-1. Source Sheffield & Hudson (2003). video exposure was sufficient for children with prior training 10 weeks...

Closeness

In our interviews, adolescents spoke at length about the ways in which they felt close to their best friends. Interestingly, when asked why they felt close to their best friends (or how their best friend was different from their other friends), commonly expressed sentiments included claims that they could trust their best friends with their secrets and their money. In addition, adolescents voiced feelings that they could trust closest friends to protect them from harm and that they would be...

Within Task Learning versus Previously Acquired Knowledge Revisited

Thus far in the chapter, it has been argued that the representation of humans by young infants is influenced by experience occurring prior to the experiment. In this section, direct evidence for this suggestion will be described. The experiments to be discussed investigate how infants categorize a human attribute, namely, the gender of human faces. In particular, Quinn, Yahr, Kuhn, Slater, and Pascalis (2002) used the familiarization novelty-preference procedure to examine the representation of...

Adolescents Experience of Friendships

Relatedly, a second limitation to the friendship literature is a failure to consider adolescents' actual friendship experiences. This is surprising given the fact that the degree to which adolescents attach importance to various traits and behaviors will likely vary by the extent that they (1) are exposed to various norms and values in the larger society and (2) associate with peers who come from differing racial ethnic backgrounds (Aboud, 1987). Thus, although many researchers have argued that...

Evidence for Independence

Several researchers have made the argument that gender knowledge and preferences are independent after observing that young children do not mention gender as a reason for their choices (Eisenberg, Murray, & Hite, 1982), that gender preferences emerge before gender knowledge (Perry et al., 1984 Weinraub et al., 1984), and that there is no significant positive correlation between knowledge and preferences (Bussey & Bandura, 1992 Carter & Levy, 1988 Hort, Leinbach, & Fagot, 1991). As...

Modifications of the Individualistic Theme

Although the conception of the transition to adulthood held by adolescents and emerging adults is characterized by individualism, it is not necessarily an unbridled or selfish individualism. On the contrary, for many young people becoming an adult necessarily means that individualism is tempered by the development of character qualities that emphasize social and communal considerations. Egocentrism and selfishness are character qualities they see as part of adolescence, and becoming an adult...

Study of Conceptions of the Transition to Adulthood

The participants in the study were 140 persons aged 21-28 (50 were aged 21-24, 50 were aged 25-28), part of the age period scholars now refer to as emerging adulthood (Arnett, 2000 2004). Participants were contacted from mid-Missouri high school enrollment lists from 3-10 years earlier, and 72 agreed to participate in the study. For married persons contacted, spouses were also invited to participate. Participants were predominantly White (94 ), and about evenly divided between males and females...

Table 151

Summary of Major Constructs Predicting Quality of Socioemotional Functioning 1. Emotional intensity stable individual differences in the typical intensity with which individuals experience their emotions (one can also look at emotional intensity in specific contexts) a. intensity of negative emotions b. intensity of positive emotions c. intensity of general emotionality the general tendency to feel emotions strongly, without reference specifically to valence of the emotion (positive or...

Table 103

Types of Fantasy Narrative Elements and Proportion of Children Producing Each at Age 5 Narrative Element Example Producing Element at Age 5 Setting there was a jungle and in the jungle they have dark .13 Highpoint and he went grr grr, and he knocked over all the trees .41 cause he got so mad, and he knocked over this, and he knocked over everything Resolution then he kills the dragon and she kills the elephant .22 and they live happily ever after Closing the end .47 Character delineation the...

Transitional Stress Model

The basis of the transitional stress model is that reproductive transitions are periods of development that involve reorganization of biological and behavioral systems (Susman, 1997, 1998). This reorganization may increase emotional arousal and the onset of psychiatric disorders (Dorn & Chrousos, 1997). For example, in the case of depression, aroused physiological states may trigger increased moodiness, sudden mood changes, feelings of self-consciousness, or elevated intensity of moods, all...

The Fragility of Childrens Understanding of Scale Models

Despite the apparent simplicity of the model, very young children have great difficulty using it. These results are summarized in Figure 8.1. Children younger than 3 years of age usually perform very poorly (only about 20 correct retrievals). The difficulty that children encounter cannot be attributed to forgetting the location of the toy that they observed being hidden. Almost all children succeed on the memory-based search in which they return to the model to retrieve the miniature toy. Thus,...

Implications For Future Research

Having described our efforts to understand ethnic minority low SES, urban adolescents' experiences of friendships, we dedicate the remaining portion of this chapter to describing prevailing gaps in the literature, with the hope of inspiring further inquiry into the peer experiences of adolescents from ethnically, socioeconomically, and geographically diverse backgrounds. We believe that such research is critical, for despite changing demographics resulting in a proliferation of ethnic minority...

Parental Relationships and Childrens Peer Relations

A compelling direction for further research on social aggression is examining how parents, particularly mothers, may influence the development of children's social aggression. Mothers may play a unique role in children's peer relations due to the amount of time they spend as socializing agents. Existing research has indicated that mothers influence children's peer interactions in ways that may lead to difficulties. For example, when assessing hypothetical social dilemmas, children and mothers...

Theoretical Framework Language Development As Communicative Development

Language acquisition constitutes a process in which communication is always central (Ninio & Snow, 1996). Children clearly need to learn a great deal about the formal linguistic system and about conventional modes of expression in order to speak grammatically and correctly. While such learning is impressive, thinking of language acquisition as consisting entirely, or even primarily, of learning about the formal, conventionalized aspects of the language system omits the aspect of language...

Production Of First Words

Somewhere around the start of the second year children produce their first formal words. Prior to this point, children have been adding words to their receptive lexicons for several weeks or months consequently, early in development children's production of words lags behind what they are able to comprehend (e.g., Bates et al., 1979 Childers & Tomasello, 2002). Nonetheless, children's first spoken words signal an important transition in language development and greatly affect their social...

The Quality of Friendships Quantitative Data Gender and Ethnic Differences

Research on the quality of adolescent friendships has typically been grounded in Weiss's (1974) contention that children and adolescents seek social provisions in their close friendships (Furman, 1996). Such provisions include intimacy (e.g., sharing secrets together), affection (e.g., showing affection toward one another), companionship (e.g., having fun together), and satisfaction (Shulman, 1993). A large body of research over the past decade has focused on understanding the prevalence and...

Developmental Origins and Outcomes of Social Aggression

Although there has been a recent proliferation of research on gender and aggression much remains to be understood about the forms and functions of girls' and boys' aggression. Table 11.4 presents a list of the top ten pressing questions for the study of gender and childhood aggression (Underwood, Galen & Paquette, 2001). As a first step toward answering some of these questions, we are beginning a large, longitudinal study of 300 children and their families beginning when the children are 9...

Nonpresent and Fantasy Talk at Ages 20 and 32 Months

Given our view of traditional measures of child language (e.g., MLU) as an incomplete reflection of children's developing communicative skills, we also examined children's expression of communicative intent. Parent-child talk at child ages 20 and 32 months was segmented into communicative acts, and each act was coded using the Inventory of Communicative Acts-Abridged (INCA-A), a shortened and modified version of the system developed by Ninio and Wheeler (1984) for coding the dyadic interaction...

Summary of the School Context

It is typically assumed that family relationships both the quality of these relationships and the level of parental guidance and monitoring are the most important factors shaping adolescents' experiences of their friendships. However, such beliefs ignore the significant role of the school context (Rosenbloom & Way, 2004 Way et al., 2004 Way & Pahl, 2001). Both perceptions of teacher student and student student relationships in school appear to be significantly associated with the...

Prior Research and Theory on Emotion Related Regulation

The construct of emotion regulation has been considered in several bodies of work. For example, it has been discussed in depth by temperament theorists who define regulation in terms of modulating internal reactivity (Rothbart & Bates, 1998). In the temperament literature, emotion regulation frequently is operationalized as involving attentional processes such as the abilities to shift and focus attention as needed (Derryberry & Rothbart, 1988 Windle & Lerner, 1986). Similarly, in the...

Social Competence and Problem Behavior

Because many of the same predictions regarding the relation of individual differences in emotionality and regulation to empathy-related responding logically would be expected to apply to the broader domain of social competence and problem behavior, we have also have examined the role of individual differences in emotionality and regulation in children's social competence and problem behavior. As for the study of sympathy and personal distress, we have been interested in the additive and...

Reinstatement With Representational Reminders

Our recent research has focused on children's ability to use information presented in various media as reminders of past events. With a video simulation reminder, children watch a video tape of an event instead of a live model. With photograph reminders, children view photographs of past events with or without accompanying verbal narration. Finally, in a model simulation experiment, children view an experimenter perform the actions using a small-scale model replica of the room and props used in...

Historical Background

Identifying Neighborhoods as Contexts for Mental Health and Risk Behavior In the last 60 years of social science research, a confluence of investigators from disparate fields, including sociology (e.g., Jencks & Mayer, 1990 Sampson, Raudenbush, & Earls, 1997 Shaw & McKay, 1942 Wilson, 1987) and psychology (Bronfenbrenner, 1977, 1986 Brooks-Gunn et al., 1997a, 1997b Leventhal & Brooks-Gunn, 2000), has argued for and presented evidence of neighborhood context effects on children and...

Preface

Since the first edition of the book, the field of developmental psychology has continued to grow at an extraordinary pace. Increasingly sophisticated and varied research methods now make it possible to examine the highly complex interactions among the many interrelated factors that contribute to children's cognitive, emotional, and social development. It is with these considerations in mind that we undertook our second edition. The second edition of Child Psychology A Handbook of Contemporary...

Table 121

Facets of Understanding Spatial-Graphic Representations Referential meaning Representational awareness Representational duality Aesthetic awareness Aesthetic duality Recognizing that there is a representation as distinct from the referent Differentiating qualities that carry stand for meaning and qualities that adhere in the representation itself at both global and componential levels Understanding representational vantage point interpreting spatial qualities of and among referents and...

Table 122

Progressive Competencies in Understanding External Spatial Representations I. Referential Content. The viewer begins to identify the referential meaning of the representation, with varying ease depending upon the physical similarity of representation and referent. Thus, the viewer understands the representation in the sense of identifying the denoted referent, but appears to confuse them (as in trying to pick up a depicted object). II. Global Differentiation. The viewer identifies the...

The Nature Of Temperamentcontext Linkages

In previous sections, I have documented temperament influences on environment and environmental influences on temperament. However, it also is important to consider the possibility that transactional processes (Sameroff & Fiese, 1990), involving mutual bi-directional influences between temperament and environment operating over time, may be a better way of understanding relations between environment and temperament. One such example of mutual influences is seen in the work of Maccoby et al....

Table 184

Measurement Model of the Five Cs and PYD 1 Positive identity .91 .18 3 Academic competence .51 .74 5 School engagement .72 .48 6 Social competence .46 .79 7 Personal values .76 .42 8 Social conscience .79 .37 9 Values diversity .70 .51 10 Interpersonal values and skills .67 .54 11 Sympathy Disadvantaged .72 .48 12 Sympathy Loneliness .81 .30 13 Sympathy Unfortunate .74 .46 14 Sympathy Pain .80 .37 15 Sympathy Rejection .76 .43 Connection by the Five Cs, and proposed a measure of contribution...

Scale Model Reinstatement in 24Month Olds

To further test children's ability to use representational reminders, in another experiment, we administered a reminder task to 24-month-olds using a scale model. The procedure for both the training and long-term retention test sessions was the same as for the 24-month-old reminder group described above (Deocampo & Hudson, 2003) except that the reminder treatment consisted of the children watching as an experimenter reenacted all of the previously trained and untrained activities inside a...

Out of School Time

During their many out-of-school hours, school-age children need supervised and structured settings for positive, healthy development. After-school programs and activities are important avenues of socialization contributing to the differences in experience associated with family income. How children spend their out-of-school time has important implications for development leisure activities may provide opportunities for learning and developing competencies (Bronfenbrenner, 1979 Larson &...

The Mediational Role of Maternal Functioning

As compared to school-age children, the maternal role may be more salient during the preschool years because of fewer competing socialization influences, e.g. teachers and peers therefore we focused on the role of maternal functioning as a crucial mediator in the linkage between exposure to community violence and child problems (Linares, Heeren, Bronfman, Zuckerman, Augustyn, & Tronick, 2001). There is substantial evidence from the developmental and family relations literature that mothers'...

Lightness Similarity

Evidence from my own laboratory relevant to theoretical accounts of the development of object perception has focused on when and how humans become capable of grouping parts of a stimulus together to form a coherent whole. A study by Quinn, Burke, and Rush (1993) hints at answers to both questions. The stimuli are shown in the left half of Figure 5.1. As reported by Wertheimer (1923 1958), adult participants group together the elements of such stimuli on the basis of lightness similarity and...

Support

Optimal social-emotional development depends on having an environment that responds to human social and emotional needs (Bretherton & Waters, 1985). Such acts and conditions we call support. Some acts of support are given in anticipation of unexpressed needs, others following expressed needs. Emotions function to prepare human beings to take action in their own best interest (Grinker et al., 1956). Parents must assist in enlisting and modulating the motivational properties of emotions to...

Y

Children were asked to place stickers on the plan map to show the locations indicated on the aerial photograph. With respect to location variables, and as hypothesized in the selection of the locations that were queried, items that allowed solution via topological concepts such as on or next to generally elicited better performance than items that required metric or quantitative reasoning. For example, the item at a clear and unique bend of the breakwater was answered...

O

Figure 4.5 Individual plots of children's productive vocabulary growth spurts at different points in development between 9 and 21 months. Figure 4.5 Individual plots of children's productive vocabulary growth spurts at different points in development between 9 and 21 months. (e.g., Bloom, 2000 Heibeck & Markman, 1987). Children's acquisition of a relatively substantial large number of count nouns in production promotes comparisons across objects and increased attention to object shape, both...

Potential Reasons for Ethnic Differences in Age of Pubertal Onset

A finding across three large-scale studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s, the PROS study (Her-man-Giddens et al., 1997), NHANES III (Wu et al., 2002), and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (Morrison et al., 1994), is that African American girls begin breast and pubic hair development about a year earlier than White girls and begin menses about half a year earlier. The reasons for the earlier age of secondary sexual characteristic onset for African American...

Summary of the Family Context

Previous attachment and social support-based research with predominantly White, middle-class adolescents, coupled with our own research with urban, low SES, ethnic minority youth indicate attachment-like associations between the quality of mother and or family relationships and adolescent friendships. However, our research also suggests patterns of compensatory associations between mother and friendship support that are as likely to exist among the adolescents in our studies as attachmentlike...

The Developmental Sequelae Of Infantmother Attachment Security

In addition to affording an opportunity to evaluate the effects of early child care on infant-mother attachment security, data collected as part of the NICHD Study enabled me to explore individual differences in the future social and cognitive functioning of some 1,000 children studied in the course of investigating the long-term consequences of early child care experience. Drawing upon data gathered when children were 3, I examined two separate issues with respect to the developmental sequelae...

Understanding Individual Differences In Emotional Selfregulation

Within any age group, children differ greatly in both their level of emotional responsiveness and in the types of strategies they have available to regulate emotion. We now turn to a discussion of some of the factors that contribute to these individual differences in children's emotional self-regulatory abilities. In our model (see Figure 1.2) we focus on the role of child factors, especially temperament, that children might bring to the task of emotion regulation. We also examine the role of...

The Parenting Environment

Closely related to the idea of parenting tasks is the idea of a place where parenting occurs. It seems useful to think of the environment for parenting as including all the social and physical phenomena within the child's home place (Wachs, 1992, 2000 Wapner, 1987 Wohlwill & Heft, 1977). However, it is probably counterproductive to confine the concept of the parenting environment to a particular place, even though the concepts of parenting and home are semantically linked. In a child's mind,...

The Characteristics And Quality Of Adolescent Friendships

While few researchers have examined the contextual-level predictors of friendship quality among ethnic minority adolescents, there has been an increasing number of studies examining the characteristics (e.g., number of cross-ethnic racial friendships) and quality (e.g., level of support or intimacy) of friendships among ethnically diverse youth. This body of research has, for the most part, suggested that the characteristics and quality of friendships are influenced by race, ethnicity, gender...

Summary of Quality of Friendships Quantitative Data

Although gender differences are often detected in samples of European American and Latino adolescents, such gender differences are rarely indicated among African American (DuBois & Hirsch, 1990 Rosenbloom, 20042 Way & Chen, 2000) or Asian American youth (Way & Chen, 2000). One possible explanation for the lack of gender differences among African American youth may be that African American boys experience more supportive friendships than both European American or Latino boys and thus...

Aesthetic Understanding Overview

Most work on graphic representations within developmental psychology including the work discussed in prior sections of this chapter is embedded within the study of cognitive development. But once one appreciates that any given graphic representation is not a small, flat, singular replica of some portion of reality, the stage is set for considering a host of factors related to the creation of any particular representation (e.g., what was the creator's intent ) and to the impact of that...

Historical Models of Parsing and Unit Formation

How are the connectedness, coherence, and outlines of objects in a visual scene established How during development do humans come to know which edges and contours go together to form objects Historically, different answers have been given to such questions. Gestalt psychologists argued that our nervous systems are constrained, even at birth, to follow certain principles (e.g., closure, common movement, good continuation, proximity, and similarity) that specify how small pieces of a visual scene...

Strengthbased View Of Youth Development

In these early years of the twenty-first century, a new vision and vocabulary for discussing young people has begun to emerge (King et al., 2004). Propelled by the increasingly more collaborative contributions of scholars (e.g., Benson, 2003 Damon & Gregory, 2003 Lerner, Dowling, & Anderson, 2003 Roth, Brooks-Gunn, Murray, & Foster, 1998), practitioners (e.g., Pittman, Irby, & Ferber, 2001 Wheeler, 2000, 2003), and policy makers (e.g., Cummings, 2003 Gore, 2003 Gore & Gore,...

Measures

Parents and children each completed a measure of racial ethnic socialization, with parents reporting how often they sent 10 different racial ethnic socialization messages to their children and children reporting how often they received the same 10 racial ethnic socialization messages from their parents. Both parents and children replied to each item using a 3-point Likert scale ranging from never send receive the message to often send receive the message. Based on the racial ethnic...

Observational Research on Peer Status and Coping with Angry Provocation

One serious limitation of the described research is that it relies heavily on children's responses to hypothetical vignettes, rather than on how children behave when actually confronted with angry provocation. To try to observe more directly how children behave when angry, we developed a laboratory method to provoke a mild degree of anger in participants in the age range of middle childhood (Underwood, Hurley, Johanson, & Mosley, 1999). Children in this study participated in a laboratory...

Perceptual Cues for Category Representations of Nonhuman Animals

A question raised by the findings of categorization at the basic level by infants concerns the perceived attributes of the stimuli the diagnostic cues that allow streams of exemplars from multiple categories to be separated into different category representations. Are the infants using specific parts, the pattern of correlation among the parts, or perhaps overall shape as a basis for categorization One study indicates that information from the head and face region may provide the means by which...

Distinguishing Two Types Of Narrative

Two common forms of narrative discourse during the preschool years are personal narratives and fantasy stories. In personal narratives children report their personal experiences in contexts like parent-child conversation and dinner-table talk (Aukrust & Snow, 1998 Blum-Kulka, 1997 Ochs, Taylor, Rudolph, & Smith, 1992 Peterson & McCabe, 1992). In fantasy stories children narrate fictional happenings in the context of everyday pretend play, initially with the support of mothers or other...

Summary

Thus far we have outlined components of current research and theory regarding racial ethnic socialization processes within families. First, we provided an overview of our conceptualization of racial ethnic socialization and highlighted that such messages can be communicated through a variety of mechanisms verbal, nonverbal, deliberate, unintended, proactive, reactive, child initiated or parent initiated or a combination of these. Importantly, we stressed that the complex synergistic nature of...

The Data

We now review some representative examples of the findings to illustrate the overall pattern of results in our work. In general, our findings tend to be consistent with those of others, although we have examined some issues in more detail or in different ways than other researchers. Social Competence and Externalizing Problem Behaviors In an initial study with 4- to 6-year-olds (Eisenberg et al., 1993), children's socially appropriate behavior was rated by undergraduates who observed the...

Friendship As Affective Relationships

Up until this point in this chapter we have been discussing how children construct social skills and peer group social structure. We have been (almost) acting as if all dyadic relationships within the peer group were interchangeable. That is that dyads are created at random and that every possible dyad in the classroom interacts in a similar manner. And this is, of course, not true. Even the earliest of studies of the construction of peer interaction among infants (Lee, 1973) noted that babies...

Emotion Regulation and Later Adaptation

In this section, we explore some implications of our model of emotional self-regulation for later adaptation. Included are possible links between early emotion regulation processes and later social competence, coping, and psychopathology. The attainment of a reasonable level of emotional self-regulation can be considered a major developmental task of toddlerhood and early childhood (Kopp, 1989). Consistent with the developmental psychopathology perspective, effective negotiation of this issue...

The Absence of Gender Specific Criteria

In contrast to the strict demarcation of gender expectations in the preparation for the transition to adulthood in traditional cultures with provide protect procreate as requirements for males, and care for children run a household as requirements for females it is striking how little the views of the emerging adults described here were linked to gender. The questionnaire items specific to gender, and the interview question on woman girl and man boy distinctions, were intended to explore this...

Fantasy Narrative

A similar series of regression models was constructed to predict skill in fantasy narrative at five, assessing both our more specific hypothesis, that early experience with fantasy talk would best support later competence in fantasy narration, and our more general hypotheses, that early experience with nonpresent talk and early pragmatic flexibility would also support fantasy talk at five. These models are displayed in Table 10.6. For fantasy narrative, even though nonpresent talk explains a...

The Preeminence of Accepting Responsibility for Ones Self

Accepting responsibility for one's self was far and away the top criterion for adulthood, in both the questionnaire and the interview. The endorsement of the questionnaire item accept responsibility for the consequences of your actions as necessary for adulthood was nearly unanimous 94 (see Table 19.1). With respect to the interview questions, the proportion mentioning responsibility for one's self was higher than for any other criterion, in response to both questions (see Table 19.2). Thus the...

Central Nervous System and Tissue Sensitivity to Sex Steroids

Levels of circulating steroid hormones explain on average less than half the variance in morphological pubertal development and growth in girls and boys (Nottelmann et al., 1987). One reason for this is that most hormone measurements are collected at only one point in time. Some of the variance could also be accounted for by structural differences in the CNS or in peripheral target tissues such as the

Theoretical Perspectives Of Gender Development

What are the processes that account for gender differentiation This question has stimulated theoretical debates that continue in the field today. The beginning of the controversy over the relative influences of social and cognitive factors can be traced back to Maccoby's (1966) book The Development of Sex Differences. In one chapter, Walter Mischel emphasized environmental influences by using principles of learning theory (e.g., rewards, punishments) and modeling to explain sex-typed behavior....

Letters As a Symbol System

The questions raised in this chapter regarding children's acquisition of symbols also are relevant to the early development of reading. In learning to read, children must master the relation between an abstract symbol system and its referents. Given the importance of the alphabet and the problems children may have in learning it, parents often turn to other means of making letter learning more concrete. For example, concrete objects such as alphabet blocks or magnetic letters potentially can...

Results and Discussion

Overall, children showed remarkable skill in maintaining poise in this provoking situation. Immediately following provoking comments by the actors, participants showed neutral facial expressions and gave no verbal response just over 50 of the time. The most common types of verbalizations were talking about the specifics of the game or the score, self-negative comments, or negative responses. In general, the pattern of participants' verbal reactions provides support for Gottman and Mettetal's

Stability of Temperament2

As long as temperament was regarded as primarily biologically-genetically driven, the logical assumption was that individual differences in temperament should be stable over time (Wilson & Ma-theny, 1986). However, with the increasing evidence on the role played by contextual factors on the expression of individual differences in temperament (Wachs & Kohnstamm, (2002), it is now more logical to expect only modest stability of temperament over time.3 Further, given changes in both the...

Concreteness Symbolic Development And Childrens Use Of Scale Models

Much of our work on symbolic development has focused on children's understanding of a specific symbol system scale models. Studying children's understanding of scale models has provided important windows onto the process of symbolic development and the effects of concreteness on symbolic understanding. The results of several studies clearly indicate that the relation between the concreteness of an intended symbol and its effect on children's comprehension of the symbolic relation is far more...

Mediating Mechanisms Motivation versus Anxiety

The developmental predictions regarding how susceptible children are to CL and AL might be further explained by differences in the mechanisms that are triggered by these labels. Mainly, there are two main explanations that have been used to interpret the significant effects in the gender labeling studies. Initially, the results were explained in terms of motivational factors (e.g., Bradbard et al., 1986 Davies, 1986, 1989 Helper & Quinlivan, 1973 Montemayor, 1974). For example, cognitive...

Discussion

This chapter focused on children's early language development and the role of parents in supporting their children's language achievements. We documented the impressive variation that exists in children's early understanding and production of words, the developmental timing of specific language milestones, and children's cognitive performance more broadly. Longitudinal investigations in our laboratory consistently yield strong associations between children's emerging language competencies...

Notes

Following Rothbart & Bates (1998) I am assuming that differences among individuals in the specific dimensions and domains of temperament are quantitative in nature, with individuals being distributed along a continuum. However, it is important to note that there continues to be controversy on the issue of whether individual differences in temperament are best viewed as qualitative or quantitative in nature. For those espousing a qualitative viewpoint, individuals with different temperament...

Attractive Objects May Be Distracting Manipulatives

Another implication of the present analysis is that objects that are interesting in their own right may not make the best manipulatives. Observations of manipulative use in other countries have supported the idea that a good manipulative is not necessarily an inherently interesting object. For example, in Japan, children use the same set of manipulatives throughout the early elementary school years. Stevenson and Stigler (1992, pp. 186-187) who have conducted several cross-national comparisons...

What Does Not Matter Marriage Age Finishing School Getting a

Just as interesting as what matters to emerging adults in defining adulthood is what does not matter to them. We have already seen that marriage now matters little as a marker of adulthood, despite its traditional importance as the ultimate marker. Through most of American history, until late in the twentieth century, getting married meant reaching full adulthood. Marriage no longer has this meaning in American society. It is meaningful in other important ways, of course, but its status as a...

Concluding Comments

The question of how to build a baby has been a matter of debate among theorists of early cognitive development since the writings of Piaget (1952 see for example, Carey, 1985 Elman, Bates, Johnson, Karmiloff-Smith, Parisi, & Plunkett, 1996 Karmiloff-Smith, 1992 Keil, 1989 Mandler, 1988, 1992 Quinn & Eimas, 1996b, 1997, 2000 Spelke, 1994). What mechanisms and knowledge does one build into the infant What structure is available in the environment The approach taken in the present chapter...

Welfare Receipt

If income improves children's life chances, then the source of that income should not matter. Income from welfare should be as beneficial as income from parents' earnings. Many have argued, however, that welfare receipt in and of itself has negative effects on children because it results in a welfare culture that places families outside the mainstream values of work and self-sufficiency. The influence of welfare per se on children (as opposed to lack of resources) is difficult to tease apart...

Growing Interest in Schools as Contexts for Mental Health and Risk Behavior

How and why qualities of schools affect the children who attend them have been reigning questions in the field of educational research for the last several decades. Although early reports on school effects on children claimed little or no impact (Coleman et al., 1966), further research into school impacts showed clear school differences in individual achievement and social behavior (Rutter, 1980). The latter view now pervades research on schools as well as public policies and programs designed...

Facets of Understanding

The premise of the work discussed in this chapter is that understanding graphic representations involves a number of facets, summarized in Table 12.1. The first, referential meaning, is the most obvious recognizing the denotative meaning of the representation. For example, when a viewer who is asked to interpret a painting of a cat answers It's a cat, the viewer has demonstrated understanding of referential meaning. However, as Figure 12.1 reminds us, images like these are not, in fact, their...

Concluding Remarks

There continues to be only a small body of developmental research on the friendships of racial and ethnic minorities (Fitzgerald et al., 1995 Garcia Coll et al., 2000, 1996 Graham, 1992, 1994). This is especially troubling given the centrality of peer relationships during adolescence. Moreover, few studies have examined the ways in which contexts or settings shape adolescent friendships (and vice versa) or the ways in which friendships are experienced within diverse contexts. Thus, longitudinal...