Data Analytical Plan

First, means and SD by level of chronic community violence risk were obtained by dividing mothers (using a median split procedure) in low and high risk groups on the basis of their chronic community violence composite score to examine study predictors by level of reported chronic community violence exposure. Mean differences in preschool outcomes by level of chronic community violence risk were tested using ANCOVA methodology. Second, the bivariate correlation matrix was inspected to identify significant correlations. Only significant zero order correlations were used in subsequent multiple hierarchical regressions (MHR). The analytical plan for the MHR was as follows: Variables within the same domain were entered as a block. Less proximal (to the child) variables were entered before more proximal variables under the notion that distal variables exert presumably a lesser influence on the child's behavior than more proximal variables. In our multidimensional model, however, the exception to this analytical plan was the entering of exposure to chronic community violence last (not first) in the model. We entered chronic community violence last to provide a stringent test for its unique contribution beyond that of known factors tested in the model. In the MHR analyses, the blocks were entered according to the following steps: In Step 1 we entered the demographic block (Hollingshead maternal education category, immigrant status, and child age); in Step 2 we entered the family violence block (partner violence to mother and partner violence to child); in Step 3 we entered the maternal functioning block (physical health, global distress symptoms, and positive parenting); and in Step 4 we entered the exposure to chronic community violence composite measure.

The Polarity Path

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