Eccles et al Expectancy Value Theory

Eccles and her colleagues have elaborated and tested an expectancy-value model of achievement-related choices and engagement, (Eccles, 1987; Eccles [Parsons] et al., 1983; Eccles, Adler, & Meece, 1984; Eccles & Wigfield, 1995; Meece, Wigfield, & Eccles, 1990; Wigfield & Eccles, 1992). The most recent version of this model is depicted in Figure 14.1. Expectancies and values are assumed to di-

Cultural Milieu

Cultural Milieu

Eccles Model
Figure 14.1 General model of achievement choices.

rectly influence performance, persistence, and task choice. Expectancies and values are assumed to be influenced by task-specific beliefs such as perceptions of competence, perceptions of the difficulty of different task, and individuals' goals and self-schema. These social cognitive variables, in turn, are influenced by individuals' perceptions of other peoples' attitudes and expectations for them, by their own interpretations of their previous achievement outcomes, and by their affective memories of, or affective expectations about, similar tasks. Individuals' task-perceptions and interpretations of their past outcomes are assumed to be influenced by socializer's behavior and beliefs, by their own histories of success and failure, and by cultural milieu and unique historical events.

Eccles [Parsons] et al. (1983) defined expectancies for success as children's beliefs about how well they will do on either immediate or future tasks. In contrast, they (1983) defined beliefs about ability as children's more general evaluations of their competence in different areas. Interestingly even though these two constructs are theoretically distinguishable form each other, Eccles and her colleagues have found empirically that children and adolescents do not distinguish between these two different levels of beliefs. Apparently, even though these constructs are theoretically distinguishable from each other, in real-world achievement situations they are highly related and empirically indistinguishable.

Finding Your Confidence

Finding Your Confidence

Confidence is necessary to achieve success in life. Some effective confidence tips must be followed if you genuinely want to gain accomplishment in your work. So how do you build your confidence that will work for you in any situation? Initially, make an effort to spend time with confident people. Their vigor and strength is so stirring that you will surely feel yourself more powerful just by listening to their talk. To build confidence it is vital that you are in the midst of self-assuring people.

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