Focus on Desired Object Search for Mother

Figure 1.1 Self-regulatory strategies displayed by children in delay and separation situations.

behavioral strategies than 12-month-olds. These findings support the notion that older children are more able to utilize active strategies than their younger counterparts.

Building upon our earlier work, a recent study (Grolnick, Bridges, & DeCourcey, 2004), examined children's use of seven strategies (active engagement was divided into that with mother and independent play) in a cross-sectional study of 137 12-, 18-, 24-, and 32-month-olds using the delay and separation paradigms described above. Supporting the developmental model, there were differences between younger (12 and 18 months) and older (24 and 32 months) children in their level of emotional expressiveness and five of the seven strategies. Younger children expressed more distress than older children. Further, younger children were less likely to use the more active strategies of active engagement, independent play, and symbolic self-soothing. Younger children were more likely to use passive engagement and other-directed strategies, such as comfort seeking, relative to older children.

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